Approximately 33 cm.. length, and a weight of 140 g.
The Socorro Parakeet(Psittacara brevipes) is a medium Parrot with the plumage bright dark green, with the crown, the forecrown and lores grass-green, the sides of neck slightly brighter, the head and the neck, sometimes with one or more scattered feathers of orange-red. The upperparts are green grass, slightly brighter in the area of the rump. Upperwing-coverts herb with bluish green in the outside greater coverts. Primaries and secondaries Green in the part superior with tint blue in them vane outer; olive Oliva-Amarillo down. Underwing-coverts green. Underparts grass-green. Above, the tail dark green, by down color yellowish olive.
The bill color horn; eye ring pale beige; irises orange yellow or orange; legs yellowish brown.
Gender-related differences are unknown although the immature has irises Brown.
The Socorro Parakeet It is often considered a subspecies of the Green Parakeet. However, Howell and Webb They presented evidence that supports the separation of the species from the other subspecies of Aratinga holochlora. They found that the bill of the Socorro Parakeet is larger than, and noticed differences in the color of the skin of the eye ring, also has a Wing formula different, the tenth primary feather It is shorter than the seventh and Green Parakeet is the reverse. Both species also differ in the vocalization, calls of the Green Parakeet they are richer in harmonics that the of the Socorro Parakeet.
Most commonly observed in forests of species such as the Bumelia socorrense, Guettarda insularis, Ilex socorroensis, with trees of at least 8 metres in height. Usually, above 500 m (especially on the South side of Socorro island), because in most of the rest of its distribution area, in the lower elevations, It has lost its vegetation preferred because of the sheep pasture.
Registered at low altitudes, 4 m, where the native forest (in canyons), near the sea level, especially in tall trees of Croton masonii, Conocarpus erecta and Ficus.
Usually, in flocks of up to 40 birds, rarely come to the 100 specimens. Gather in numerous flocks on the branches of the guayabillo, in smaller flocks (until 6) or only in pairs during the breeding season.
Are social, even there is care collective nests, They show strong fidelity to nesting sites, based on observations of re-use of nests.
They nest in tree cavities, especially of the species Bumelia socorrense. The size of the clutch It is unknown, but the breeding It is thought that it can begin in the month of November. The hatchlings are altricial.
They aim to feed in the tips of the trees or the highest branches, Although also has observed them are home on the floor
Endemic, It is only in the Socorro island in the The Revillagigedo Islands archipelago off the West coast of Mexico. Estimated population in 400-500 birds in 1992 (approximately nine birds per km2 of suitable habitat). Considered common, but recent decreasepossible n due to loss of preferred habitat (still present in around the 22% of the island) and the resulting erosion of the sheep that graze in excess. Predation by feral cats can also be a threat.
Conservation status ⓘ
• Red list category of the UICN current: In danger of extinction
• Population trend: Decreasing
Threatened in the Mexican official standard NOM- 059-ECOL-2001, but in Danger of extinction in the NOM-O59-SEMARNAT-2006 not yet published. CITES Appendix II
The Socorro Parakeet (in danger of extinction; It is only in the Socorro island and this species the habitat destruction threatens, as well as the introduction of cats, sheep and rodents.
Estimated population in 400-500 birds in 1992.
Socorro Parakeet in Captivity:
The species, Unlike the majority of continental Psittacidae, faces problems of extraction of breeding for the pet market.
– Socorro Parakeet, Green Parakeet (Socorro), Socorro Conure (English).
– Conure de Socorro, Perruche de Socorro (French).
– Socorrosittich, Socorro-Grünsittich (German).
– Periquito-de-socorro (Portuguese).
– Aratinga de Socorro, Perico de Socorro, Perico mexicano (Spanish).
– Perico de Socorro (Mexico).
The Thick-billed Parrot(Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha) has the forecrown, the lores and a large swath in the region supercilii, bright Scarlet Red; a small patch of feathers Brown in the lores, directly in front of the eyes; the crown, the cheeks and the sides of the neck are green with yellow tinge. The upperparts Green tinged indistinct tone olive in scapulars.
Upperwing-coverts Green with red feathers in the region where bend the wings. The flight feather of color green for over, with blackish tips and margins to the vane inner, grey below. Large infra-wing coverts Yellow, other coverts green.
Underparts Green with red on the the thighs. Upper, the tail green; gray at the bottom.
The bill black; bare orbital skin yellowish white; irises yellow-orange; legs grey.
Both sexes similar.
Immature with the bill color horn, greyish the bare orbital skin, and no Scarlet feathers behind the eye or red in the region where bend the wings.
The Thick-billed Parrot is often treated as the same species as the Maroon-fronted Parrot.
It inhabits in Highlands with mature pine forests or pine with other conifers in the genus Pseudotsuga, malls Populus and/or trees of the genus Quercus, in areas isolated and often rugged, sometimes are also observed in towns of lowlands.
Most are distributed at altitudes between 1,500 and 3,000 m, making breeding usually at heights between 2,000 and 3,000 m.
Its preference they are areas with Pinus arizonica and Pinus ayacahuite. In general, observed in flocks. They rest in large groups on inaccessible cliffs or trees with dense foliage. Diurnal movements of up 40 km between resting areas and feeding.
Long-lived and gregarious, they form social groups; because of this, over time the Thick-billed Parrot they return to visit forests which are of your choice.
Nest in the cavities of trees, usually pine, but also, According to sources, in trees of the species Populus tremuloides and Pseudotsuga taxifolia; usually in trees partially dead or alive, with small holes excavated, for example, by woodpeckers as the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) or caused by fungal decomposition in the Heartwood wood; sometimes very together (in the same tree) When there is available room, Although generally scattered.
The breeding season coincides with the ripening of the pine seeds; birds, usually, they reach the breeding area between the months of April and may, carrying out the mid June to end of July update. The young begin to leave the nest from early September to late October, After 59 – 65 days, Depending on their parents for a period of time after feather.
Clutch of 2 to 4 eggs, generally three, Perhaps variable with the size of the harvest of pine seeds. Care of eggs during the incubation is performed by the female and the care of the offspring is biparental.
Diet Thick-billed Parrot It is mainly composed of pine seeds (including the of the Pinus teocote and of the Pinus leiophylla) extracted from cones with their powerful beaks; They also feed, According to sources, of seeds and sprouts Conifer Pseudotsuga, fruits of the American black cherry (Prunus serotina) and acorns.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 67.100 km2
The distribution Master of the Thick-billed Parrot lies between the West and centre of Mexico, with sporadic movements towards the North and towards South.
Like other bird specialists in pine seeds, the Thick-billed Parrot wanders widely after playback, sporadically to South-West of Mexico in Jalisco, Colima and Michoacán, previously to the East up to Veracruz (Although these records are possibly involved the Maroon-fronted Parrot – Rhynchopsitta in terris) and, possibly, Coahuila de Zaragoza.
Formerly it was a sporadic visitor, and possibly resided and lesson in Arizona (especially in the mountains of Chiricahua, in the South) and in New Mexico, EE.UU, Although since the beginning of the century 20 not observed visits on a large scale and date back to the last reproductive data in the area of the 1938.
The presence of the Thick-billed Parrot is determined by the availability of pine seeds; the core of their playback area It seems to be the most constantly occupied area.
The decrease important in your population during the century 20 as a result ,mainly, of the loss and degradation of habitat, with the absence of these birds where the large pines were cut down, mainly by forestry. The loss of birds in EE.UU. was attributable to the hunt, but his presence there, probably, It was only in the short term, When were feeding conditions unusually favorable (or on the contrary very unfavorable in Mexico).
The recent threats in Mexico they are the trade in live birds and the continuous loss of habitat for livestock, as well as logging (the loss of old trees for nesting is a major problem that puts this species at a higher risk than the of the Maroon-fronted Parrot, When using the latter cliffs to build their nests).
Confiscated and captive-bred birds were released in Arizona at the end of the Decade of 1960, with the first successful reproduction in EE.UU. shortly after, but unfortunately the birds have disappeared mostly from that area.
• Red list category of the UICN current: In danger of extinction
• Population trend: Decreasing
The thick-billed Parrot is found in danger of extinction due to the destruction of nesting habitat, as well as its commercial exploitation, the decrease of population who have suffered these parrots is very evident to those that, long overdue, They inhabit the timber areas of Chihuahua and Durango (Lanning and Shiflett, 1981).
The commercial logging of pine living for wood, as well as trees died standing for its pulp, they are ending with a lot of nesting sites effective and potential for these birds (Lanning and Shiflett, 1983).
The trade of the parrots It seemed to be at least until the Decade of the eighties (Lanning and Shiflett, 1981), However, It is estimated that during 1985 and 1986 between several hundred and even thousands of parrots were illegally trafficked to the United States of America (Snyder & Wallace, 1988).
To reduce these threats the species and its habitat, There are legal instruments such as the vedas and provisions in the Law-General ecological balance and environmental protection (LGEEPA) and General wildlife law (LGVS); as well as the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 It lists the species of wild flora and fauna Mexican under some category of risk and the mechanisms of inclusion and modification.
The size of the population of the Thick-billed Parrot It is estimated between 2000-2800 mature individuals.
Cotorra Western Serrana in captivity:
Its sale as a pet is illegal.
– Thick-billed Macawlet, Thick billed Parrot, Thick-billed Parrot (English).
– Conure à gros bec, Perriche à gros bec, Perruche à gros bec (French).
– Kiefernsittich, Arasittich, Kiefern Sittich (German).
– Papagaio-mexicano-de-testa-vermelha (Portuguese).
– Cotorra de Pico Ancho, Cotorra serrana, Cotorra Serrana Occidental, Cotorra-serrana Occidental (Spanish).
– Cotorra serrana, Cotorra-serrana Occidental, Loro de Pico Grueso Occidental Mexicano, Cotorra de Pico Duro,
Guacamaya, Guaca (Mexico).
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– National Commission of natural protected Areas
(1) – Two Thick-billed Parrots at Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona, USA By Tim Lenz from Ithaca (Thick-billed ParrotsUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Thick-Billed Parrots at Twycross Zoo, Leicestershire, England By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Rhynchopsitta_pachyrhyncha_-Twycross_Zoo-8.jpg: Paul Reynolds from UK [CC BY 2.0 or CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – An adult Thick-billed Parrot at Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland By Jenni Douglas from Edinburgh, Scotland (Thick billed ParrotUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Thick-billed Parrot at Cincinnati Zoo, USA By Rhynchopsitta_pachyrhyncha_-captive-8a.jpg: Jean from Shelbyville, KYderivative work: Snowmanradio [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Three adult Thick-billed Parrots in captivity in the USA By Joe Mazzola (LovebirdsUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Thick-billed Parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha). Two parrots on a nestbox By Just chaos [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Thick-billed Parrot Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha at Cincinnati Zoo By Ltshears (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Thick-billed Parrot in captivity By Mark Dumont from Cincinnati, USA (Thick Billed ParrotUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Thick-billed Parrot – Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha at Cincinnati Zoo By Ltshears (Own work) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Monographia Psittacorum By Wagler, Johann Georg [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Origin: Venezuela, Guyanas, Suriname, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
Longevity: 30 years
Height: 30 cm..
30 cm.. length and a weight between 130 and 170 g..
The Red-shouldered Macaw(Diopsittaca nobilis) along with the other two subspecies belong to the Group of the small macaws often called dwarf macaws or mini macaws parrots.
They have forecrown, front of the crown and top of the eyes blue; rest of the head and upperparts, including the wings and the top of the tail, grass-green. Rojas the carpal joints and the leading edge of the wing
. Lesser and medium underwing-coverts red; large underwing-coverts brown; underside of flight feather Golden olive.
The underparts green, but more yellowish than the upper. The bottom of the tail Golden olive.
Bill blackish; bare skin of the lores and top of the cheeks white; irises orange-brown; black legs.
Both sexes similar; Perhaps a little smaller females.
The immature with the head completely Green: has no red color in the carpal joints.
Description 3 subspecies:
Diopsittaca nobilis cumanensis
(Lichtenstein, 1823) – Larger that the species nominal, at around 33 cm.. length. The forecrown more blue and the upper maxilla off-white.
Diopsittaca nobilis longipennis
(Neumann, 1931) – It is the largest subspecies, at around 35 cm.. length. Underparts more yellow and olive green
With they are distributed in a variety of open wooded habitats, including savannah with scattered shrubs and palm trees (for example of Mauritia) in Suriname, morichales and the coast plantations in Guyana, closed with palm groves of Mauritia on the inside of Brazil and margins of caatinga in the northeast of Brazil with palm groves of Mauritia.
A persistent feature in its preferred habitat is the presence of Palm trees, especially of the genus M. flexuosa, Orbignya martiana and Maximiliana maripa (the latter especially in the southern region of the Amazon). Also observed in wetlands with palms, Gallery forests and cultivated areas.
Avoid large expanses of closed canopy forests, but can be seen around human settlements and is common in the city of Georgetown, Guyana.
They reach the 1.400 metres in Venezuela, to the South of the Orinoco.
Gregarious, often in large flocks outside breeding season; If not in couples.
Nest in tree cavities, termite tree or in holes of palmas. Copulations registered in the month of October to the South-West of Brazil; Probably engender between February and June in Guiana. Clutch four eggs in captivity. The average period of incubation is of 24 days, the chicks leave the nest about 54 days after birth.
Its diet, probably, It is similar to its closest relatives, nuts are included in the, seeds, fruits and flowers, but with some signs of favorite seeds; known his preference for flowers of Terminalia argentea and Erythrina glauca, as well as the berries Cordia and fruits Euterpe. They also feed cereals and fruits in cultivated fields and are considered as one plague in some areas.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 910.000 km2
Endemic to the northeast of South America, from the East of the Andes toward the center of Brazil.
In East Venezuela they are distributed, mainly, to the South of the Orinoco (Delta Amacuro and parts of Bolivar), also at the East end of Monagas.
The few records of Trinidad they are probably elopements captive birds.
Are distributed through of the Guianas, in areas of seasonal forests (mainly near the coast) and in Brazil to the North of the Amazon in Roraima, Amapá and North of For. Returns disjoint inside of Brazil, to the South of the Amazon from the southeast of For and Maranhão the wetlands of Mato Grosso and to the South by the dry northeast in Piauí, Bahia and, According to reports in the South of Alagoas until Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Northwest of São Paulo (with a population introduced in the City of São Paulo).
They occupy the Center and East of Bolivia and Southeast of Peru, where there are records in the Heath pampas.
In general residents, with seasonal movements in some coastal areas (for example Guianas) and distributed irregularly, to the North of Amazon, where they remain scattered on the basis of suitable habitat.
In general common, especially in the Centre and northeast of Brazil, Although rare in the Guianas.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern
• Population trend: Stable
Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).
The population of Red-shouldered Macaw suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence of any reduction or substantial threats.
Currently capture and trade of wild individuals is illegal.
Noble macaw in captivity:
They are the smaller macaws commercially available pet and enough popular due to its small size (only a little bigger that a cockatoo) and for its excellent ability to imitate sounds.
In captivity, These birds are sociable and friendly.
The Red-shouldered Macaw they are easy to breed in captivity birds. They have proven to be prolific players and they have brought successfully for many years. In his book “All about parrots“, the author Arthur Freud He points out that the first Red-shouldered Macaw It was bred in captivity in the United Statess in the year 1939 and again in 1940, the Lord and Lady Vance Wright. But it was the British success during the year 1949 by EMT Vane, the best known. In fact Vane He received the first breeding metal from the British Avicultural Society ’ s for his achievements with the Red-shouldered Macaw.
The Red-shouldered Macaw they are commonly kept as pets, but their number has been decreasing in nature due to the habitat destruction and to his capture to the pet market.
With regard to its longevity, According to sources, It is known that a specimen lived 22,9 years in captivity.
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – A Red-shouldered Macaw at Parque das Aves, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. This subspecies is also know at the Noble Macaw By Chad Bordes (Picasa Web Albums) [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – The photograph shows a Hahn’s Macaw (D. n. nobilis) pet parrot perching on a finger By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Diopsittaca_nobilis_-pet-2.jpg:Evenprime at en.wikipedia. Photo by Walter Maier. Picture of family pet. Later version(s) were uploaded by Snowmanradio at en.wikipedia. (Diopsittaca_nobilis_-pet-2.jpg) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Two Red-shouldered Macaws in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil By Nori Almeida (originally posted to Flickr as Pantanal 2009) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Long-wing Macaw or Hahn’s Macaw); two in a cage By TJ Lin (originally posted to Flickr as DSCN9927) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Two Red-shouldered Parrots at Lisbon Zoo, Portugal By Jorge Andrade from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Lisbon zoo (107)Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-shouldered Macaw (Diopsittaca nobilis), also known as the Noble Macaw By Snowmanradio (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A Red-shouldered Macaw at Bird Park, Kaluga region, Zhukovsky District, Russia By Remiz [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Three Red-shouldered Macaws at a zoo By DSuàr (To be coldUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Red-shouldered Macaw (this subspecies is also known as Hahn’s Macaw) at Jungle Island, Miami, USA By Chris Acuna from Miami, USA [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
Origin: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
Longevity: 40 years.
Height: 50 to 51 cm..
50 to 51 cm.. length and a weight between 292 and 390 g.
The Red-bellied Macaw(Orthopsittaca manilatus) is a medium-sized Macaw; has the forecrown and crown a bright blue, gradually faded to blue-green color in the area of the nape and on both sides of the neck. The the mantle and scapulars are green grass with impregnations color olive and yellow edges, producing, altogether, a flaky effect; the back and rump are green grass, with some feathers tipped pale bluish. The uppertail-coverts grass-green. The lesser and median coverts green grass impregnated with green olive with yellowish margins; alula and primary coverts green with vane outer blue; large inner coverts green.
The flight feather bordered with blue and green tips. Under, the wings with coverts yellowish-green and flight feather yellowish. The feathers of the throat and top of the chest are pale grey blue in the Center and yellowish-green in the margins; those of the lower area of the chest and top of the belly without tones pale in the Center, but with some feathers with margins off dark red; belly dark red; undertail-coverts bluish green. Upper, the tail green color in the Center with yellowish margins; upor down yellow.
Bill black; nude part of lores and cheeks yellowish white; irises dark brown; legs dark gray.
Sexes similar, the males, possibly, larger.
Immature clear tip in the bill and smaller patch of dark red color of the belly.
Lives in Savanna and flooded forest, where there are Palm trees, in altitudes close to the 500 m. Very dependent from the Palma de moriche or aguaje(Mauritia flexuosa), which feeds, staying almost invisible due to its Green plumage.
Occasionally wander in by cultivated areas and have been in the mangroves.
Gregarious, flocks of more of 100 observed birds. Usually, they rest in the branches of the Mauritia Palms, where they remain hidden among the foliage of leaves.
They nest in holes of las palmas dead found near or surrounded by water, often use the nests of the Orange-winged Parrot (Amazona amazonica), of Trinidad and Tobago.
The breeding season is from February to September in Trinidad and Tobago; from February to may in Colombia; from February to June in Guyana. The size of the put is of 2 to 6 eggs with a period of incubation of approximately 27 days. The young begin to feather already in the eleventh week. Take an average of 2 to 3 years to mature, remaining during that period very close to their parents.
The Red-bellied Macaw they communicate among themselves with calls when there is a localized food source.
They roost in Palm trees full of fruit and used its beak to peel hard fruits to expose the pulp. Are, Unlike the majority of parrots, seed predators, but partially, since they eat the fruit, leaving intact the endocarpio (Darnell and Bergstrom 2002; Janzen 1981; Kristosh and Marcondes Machado-2001).
Some lick attempt to fly with the seed at its peak, and unintentionally may fall between two palm trees. The fall of seeds and food behaviour, in order to avoid damaging the seed, It makes these macaws and other psittacidas agents of seed dispersal.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 7.150.000 km2
The Red-bellied Macaw is distributed to the North of South America to the East of the Andes.
In Colombia its range is from Goal and West of Vaupés until Putumayo and Amazon, spreading northeast of Venezuela until Trinidad and Tobago and Guianas, where apparently, they are restricted to coastal areas.
Are distributed to the East of Ecuador, Northeast of Peru, North of Bolivia and much of the Brazilian Amazon, to the East of For and from the West of Bay and Goiás until Mato Grosso. Apparently absent most of Venezuela and North of the Amazon basin of Brazil, in the basin of the Rio Negro.
A small population reported in the North of São Paulo, Brazil.
Probably residents in some areas, Although migratory in others, for example, in the Northwest of Bolivia, where been observed have to these macaws in the months of September to November, being absent from November to January.
Common local; the distribution is closely related to the palms of Mauritia. Probably stable population. However, in the northeast of Brazil fruit Mauritia It is used in the manufacture of confectionery and the trunks of Palms for some construction purposes.
Rare in captivity.
• Red list category of the UICN current: Least concern.
• Population trend: Stable.
Global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as quite common.
The populations of the Red-bellied Macaw they depend of the Palms Mauritia for food and nesting. These trees are widely used for construction, and that is why you can have bad consequences for the future of the species.
These birds are threatened by the felling of these Palm trees and capture for the pet trade. However, This species tends to be common in most of their habitats, with the exception of Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela, where it is threatened by Habitat loss.
Ventrirrojo macaw in captivity:
Rare bird cage.
It is extremely difficult to keep these birds living in captivity, because, mainly, to your excitable personality, and its diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates.
The export and import for the pet trade often brings with it a mortality of the 100%; captive-bred chicks have a very low survival rate. A high percentage die at an early age kidney disease. Its acquisition as a pet is very questionable.
The only country which exports these birds in recent years is Guyana.
Due to the lack of commercial availability of nuts of moriche Palm, peeled unsalted peanuts have been used as a staple in the diet of these birds in captive. They must not be fed with the typical commercial seed, especially fat seeds such as of the Sunflower.
A nutritional analysis of the natural diet of the Red-bellied Macaw He revealed that this was made up of high levels of beta carotene, of carbohydrates and zero fat. This explains its propensity to obesity in captivity. Almost all parrots usual diets are too high in fat content, with what the Vitamin A supplements in the form of beta carotene they are essential.
Deficiencies of Vitamin A are usually made to notice very quickly, giving rise to many serious diseases, being able to get to many of them deadly.
The beta carotene is the only way of Vitamin A that do not require fat to be absorbed. The successful reproduction This species only has been able to achieve by adjusting your diet.
The young fed by hand are much quieter than adults and are able to metabolize fat more efficiently than adults. Once weaned, they remain in need of a very low fat diet.
There are no data of your longevity in captivity, Although in nature, possibly, they can live around the 40 years.
Is not a bird to keep in captive. A responsible attitude should be to put these beautiful birds in breeding programs so that future generations can enjoy them.
(1) – Red-bellied Macaw Orthopsittaca manilata in Goiânia, Brazil By A C Moraes (originally posted to Flickr as Tocci) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Red-bellied Macaws flying near the Amerindian Reservation of Santa Mission, Guyana By Feroze Omardeen [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A little girl in San Martin, Peru with a pet juvenile Red-bellied Macaw on her right shoulder By Michael Nickel (originally posted to Flickr as girl with lorito) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Buchirroja Guacamaya ( Orthopsittaca manilatus) by Marcello Magnussen – wiki_aves_colombia
(5) – Cubs maracanã do buriti in the nest, Orthopsittaca manilatus by Osvaldo Scalabrini
The Red-fronted Macaw(Ara rubrogenys) they are the smallest of the large macaws.
They have forecrown, former Lords, crown and some ear-coverts bright orange red. Back of the crown, nape and the mantle olive green color orange color in some feather-tipped; scapulars color marron-oliva; rump and uppertail-coverts olive green, pale that the of the the mantle. Lesser coverts, bend of wing and carpal edge orange-red; median olive green, some pale orange tips, the outermost impregnated blue; greater coverts most of blue, back more olive at the body; vane outer primary blue, olive green internal. Underwing-coverts juvenile red-orange, remaining the rest of green olive beige.
The underparts olive green with the the thighs red. Upper, the the tail feathers color olive green suffusion blue tip blue and; undertail, olive green yellowish.
The bill dark grey; the bare area of the subsequent Lords and upper cheeks, White crossed lines with narrow dark brown feathers; Orange the irises; perioftalmico ring white; legs dark grey.
Both sexes similar.
Immature more opaque, with less extensive orange-red color in the head and in the ear-coverts and without the orange-red in the wing
Another fundamental characteristic of the habitat of the Red-fronted Macaw they are the steep slopes and coastal cliffs unchanged to that used for nesting and roosting sites.
Often share space with communities of farmers who used the land of valleys with climates mesothermic for planting peanuts, maize and other cereals, the same people who are part of the diet of the Red-fronted Macaw.
They are birds social and rarely stands alone. Are often seen flying in small groups of 3 to 5 individuals. For the majority of activities such as food or dormideros congregate in large groups of 20 to 30 individuals. They often lie during the middle of the day in the hottest hours. The level of activity depends largely on the age and the number of macaws in the Group.
Observed nests singly or in colonies in hollows and gullies on the banks of the rivers. In rainy season the egg laying It has been reported in the months November-April. They are of 1 to 3 eggs per season, usually two, and incubation lasts around 26 days. The majority of couples feather one brood a year.
They form links of monogamous they maintain throughout the year. Even in the off-season of breeding, the copula and preening appear exclusively between the consolidated couple, presumably to maintain its link.
Generally speaking they are not territorial, but during the breeding season You can defend the area surrounding the cavity of the nest.
The population of the Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys) is estimated between 1.000-4.000 individuals, more or less equivalent to a strip between 670-2,700 mature individuals.
This species has a very small population and decreasing. Conservative estimates suggest that all subpopulations are extremely small. Therefore, qualified as endangered.
Is located in the Appendix I to the International Convention on the trafficking of endangered species of Fauna and Flora (CITES). Its capture, transport and export is prohibited by Bolivian law. However is captured by live bird catchers for the illegal trade and is pursued in an intensive way for the farmers that the consider a plague for their crops of maize and peanut.
Its natural habitat It is being impaired activities human unsustainable as indiscriminate logging and grazing goats envelope. Approximately 40% natural vegetation of the valleys they inhabited these macaws has been converted into agricultural land from 1991. As native vegetation is losing the exhibition of the Macaw of Cochabamba in the growing areas to search for food is greater. The continuous illegal capture, most of the illegal trade is domestic but some species are marketed in Peru.
The presence of small populations inside national parks Amboro and Torotoro, they constitute an effective conservation measure.
Also, in 2006, a was opened stay eco-tourism that promotes conservation of this bird in time of generating profits for the local community; It also plans to establish a protected area in that site. Additionally, in 1992, 5000 posters of protection of this species and its habitat were apparently well received in the region, as a secondary measure to preserve it.
Cochabamba macaw in captivity:
Rare in captivity.
It is an extremely intelligent and curious bird that has the ability to imitate the human voice, Despite the fact that the indigenous people of Bolivia referred to them as “Birds donkey”, due to their inability to speak. All skills require a training; holders of these birds breeders give proof of how easy it is to talk.
With regard to its longevity, According to sources, a couple of these macaws bred still then of 23 years in captivity. It has been reported that these animals can live up to 36,2 years in captivity, something possible, but that has not been verified; the same study reported that these animals can reproduce at the age of 3 years in captivity.
Due to the few specimens that are released and their situation in danger of extinction, The Red-fronted Macaw only recommended for experienced handlers and breeders.
– Red-fronted Macaw, Lafresnaye’s Macaw, Red fronted Macaw, Red-cheeked Macaw (English).
– Ara de Lafresnaye, Ara rubrogenys (French).
– Rotohrara (German).
– Arara-de-fronte-vermelha (Portuguese).
– Guacamayo de Cochabamba, Guacamayo Dorado, Guacamaya frente roja (Spanish).
– Paraba frente roja (Bolivia).
– Qaqa Loro (Quechua).
– Order: Psittaciformes
– Family: Psittacidae
– Genus: ARA
– Scientific name: Ara rubrogenys
– Citation: Lafresnaye, 1847
– Protonimo: Ara Rubro-woodpecker
Red-fronted Macaw images:
Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys)
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – Red-fronted Macaw at Berlin Zoological Garden, Germany. Some of the tail feathers are not clean By Konstantinos K [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two Red-fronted Macaws at Tulsa Zoo, Oklahoma, USA By originally posted to Flickr at Tulsa Zoo – Parrots and uploaded to Commons at Ara_rubrogenys_-Tulsa_Zoo,_Oklahoma,_USA-8a.jpg: Doug Wertman from Rogers, AR, USAderivative work: Snowmanradio (Ara_rubrogenys_-Tulsa_Zoo,_Oklahoma,_USA-8a.jpg) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Red-fronted Macaw at Wilhelma Zoo, Stuttgart, Germany By Kathrin Gaißer (PapageiUploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Red-fronted Macaw flying at Doué la Fontaine zoo, France By frank wouters (originally posted to Flickr as papegaai) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys) head By Benjamin Graves (originally posted to Flickr as Red Fronted Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys) on a branch in the foreground By derivative work: Snowmanradio (talk)Red-fronted_Macaw_(Ara_rubrogenys)_-on_branch.jpg: Balaji Dutt M V [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Red-fronted Macaw in the Walsrode Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Red-fronted Macaw at Jurong Bird Park By Peter Tan (Red-fronted MacawUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Red-fronted Macaw – Jurong BirdPark, Singapore By Doug Janson (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Illustration Ara rubrogenys (Red-fronted Macaw) by Marc Athanase Parfait Oeillet Des Murs [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Between 90 and 95 cm.. length and a weight between 1050 and 1708 g..
The Red-and-green Macaw(Ara chloropterus) they are the second largest family members of macaws behind the Hyacinth Macaw. They have forecrown, crown, both sides of the neck, the nape and the the mantle, a beautiful red; the back up to the uppertail-coverts, blue, scapulars green. Lesser coverts Red with green hidden bases; median green; primary coverts, secondaries outer and primaries, blue, latter with a black margin to the vane inner; secondary internal and large coverts internal total or partially Green. Red the underwing-coverts.
Underparts Red with the exception of the undertail- coverts they are light blue. Uppertail Red in the central part with blue tips and with the outer feathers shorter, blue; undertail-coverts dark red.
The upper mandible is mostly white ivory, except the cutting edge that is black. The lower mandible is black. The cheeks they are covered with a white bare skin that end up a thin lines of red feathers. Iris yellowish brown; legs black.
Both sexes similar.
Immature with tail shorter and the irises brown, sometimes with yellow in the coverts supra-alares.
The Red-and-green Macaw they occupy rain forest land in northern area of distribution, apparently, avoiding wetlands; in the South and East of range often in formations dry more open including seasonally flooded forests, forest Highlands and dry forests (Bolivia), entering the Savannah in Paraguay.
Its presence depends on, to a large extent, the existence of large trees and rocky cliffs that are the major providers of sites of anidacion. On the other hand, they are far from the cities, peoples and all the inhabited places, Since it is a victim of the intensive hunting and often capture for trade of birds in Aviary
Observed to 1.000 m in Panama, 500 in Colombia, 1.400m in Venezuela.
They live in pairs or in small flocks, are less likely than the Blue-and-yellow Macaw to regroup, that does not prevent them, sometimes, partnering with them and with the Scarlet Macaw.
Largest and most spectacular meetings of different species gather to eat clay on the banks of the rivers.
The Red-and-green Macaw they often perch on the tops of the tallest trees. In principle, they are very shy and difficult to deal with. Early in the morning and the night entrance, they engaged on voyages of back and forth between their places of rest and feeding areas, evolving high in the air.
The season of nesting It takes place at different times depending on the region: in Suriname in December, from November to April in Peru, in January in the middle of Brazil.
The nests they built, generally, in tree cavities, Although it can also be common nests located in cracks or holes of rocky cliffs, as it is the case of Bolivia and in the Northeast and South of Brazil, above all in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
The spawning usually has two or three eggs. The breeding success rate is not very high. According to Birds of the world (HBW), in a study recently envelope 25 from FRY's 16 nests, resulted in: 10 young birds (40%) they were able to fly normally, 9 of them (36%) they died of malnutrition and 6 (24%) they were victims of predators.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 8.100.000 km2
The Red-and-green Macaw being endemic to the East of Panama the North and centre of South America, until almost the North of Argentina.
In Panama formerly observed in the West to the Caribbean slope of the Canal area (Although these records may be due to leaks), now only observed in the most remote parts of Eastern (for example, at the top of the Rio Bayano).
Also inhabit the lowlands of Venezuela but absent in the North, from Portuguese to Monagas. Partial shape on the inside of Guianas. Along the Amazon basin of Brazil, East of Ecuador, Peru and northeast of Bolivia in Beni, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz.
Resident. Generally uncommon after the population decline caused by habitat loss and capture for trade.
Locally distributed in Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia.
In the Amazon basin in general less common but widespread that the Scarlet Macaw and the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (fairly rare in Ecuador Eastern), Although this situation was reversed in Venezuela and Guianas (and perhaps in other places).
Partially absent near population centres and in decline or have already disappeared in the peripheries of range due to habitat loss, trade and hunting.
Despite the large size of its distribution area, the species is considered monotypic (without geographical variations).
The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the. (1996)).
The population has disappeared in places where it was formerly common and it is suspected that it may be in decline due to ongoing habitat destruction elsewhere, the unsustainable levels of exploitation, hunting and capture for trade in live birds.
Rare in Panama, endangered in the West of Colombia, missing in the southeast of Brazil. They are exceptions, Peru and Paraguay, where is the species still quite common.
Not long ago, Guyana He had the record of catches of young calves. Fortunately, from 1993, the country banned the trade of this species.
Their territory is particularly large, It is not considered in danger of extinction at the global level.
Green-winged macaw in captivity:
Generalized in captivity.
It is a bird Intelligent and inquisitive but is perhaps, of all the great macaws, which is worse loneliness, so it is advisable to live with another bird, that you don't have to be necessarily of its kind. Its large size and its huge activity do require large cages and room to move.
His captive breeding is more complicated than other large macaws.
With regard to its longevity, According to sources, A male specimen of Red-and-green Macaw was still alive after 50,1 years in captivity just before it was sold. It has reported that these animals can live up to 63 years in captivity, but this has not been verified; the same study reported that these animals they can be played back from the 8 years age in captivity.
Are often crossed with other species of Macaws to develop a series of hybrid.
– Red-and-green Macaw, Green-winged Macaw, Red and green Macaw, Red-and- Green Macaw, Red-and-blue Macaw, Red-blue-and-green Macaw, Red-green Macaw (English).
– Ara chloroptère, Ara de Cuba (French).
– Grünflügelara (German).
– Arara-vermelha, arara-canga, arara-piranga, arara-verde, arara-vermelha-grande (Portuguese).
– Guacamaya Rojiverde, Guacamayo Aliverde, Guacamayo Rojo, Papagayo rojo (Spanish).
– Gonzalo, Guacamaya roja aliverde (Colombia).
– Guacamayo rojo (Ecuador).
– Carapaico (Venezuela).
– Paraba roja, Raraba colorada (Bolivia).
– Uvaí (Chimane).
– Arapiranga (Guaraní).
– Majá (Guahibo).
– Ja-wo (Piaroa).
– Bagarapuru (Embera).
– Tooma (Okaima).
– Order: Psittaciformes
– Family: Psittacidae
– Genus: ARA
– Scientific name: Ara chloropterus
– Citation: Gray, GR, 1859
– Protonimo: Ara chloropterus
Red-and-green Macaw pictures:
Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloropterus)
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
(1) – Ejemplares de Guacamayo rojo (Ara chloropterus) en Singapur By Michael Gwyther-Jones (originally posted to Flickr as Singapore) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Two captive Red-and-green Macaws (also known as the Green-winged Macaw) in San Diego, California, USA By Steve Wilson from Mississippi, USA [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Red-and-green Macaw (also known as Red-and-green Macaw) at Apenheul Primate Park, Apeldoorn, Netherlands By Arjan Haverkamp [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloropterus) in the Herborn Bird Park, Germany By Quartl (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Green-winged Macaw or Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloropterus) head and neck details By Tom Woodward (originally posted to Flickr as IMG_6422) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Red-and-green Macaw flying at Pont-Scorff Zoo, Morbihan, Brittany, France By Tony Brierton from Still here…, Ireland (Pont Scorff Zoo, FranceUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Ara chloropterus, Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela By Luna04Luna04 at fr.wikipedia (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], from Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Green-winged Macaw (also known as the Red-and-green Macaw) at Denver Zoo, USA. It is wing clipped By Drew Avery (originally posted to Flickr as Scarlet Macaw) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – Red-and-green Macaws at Pont-Scorff Zoo, Morbihan, Brittany, France By Tony Brierton from Still here…, Ireland (Scarlet MacawsUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Green-winged Macaw (Ara chloropterus), also known as the Red-and-green Macaw. Picture captioned “L’Ara Macao” by Jacques Barraband [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Origin: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil. Guyana, Suriname
Character: Intelligent and social
Longevity: 40 years
Height: 85 to 96 cm..
Of 85 to 96 cm. length and a weight between 1.060 and 1.123 g..
The Scarlet Macaw(Ara macao) has a showy and colorful plumage, predominantly Scarlet red in the head, neck, back, throat, belly, sides and the thighs, as well as in the upper parts of the wings and tail. These pens are a brighter shade of Red, almost Orange, If you are directly exposed to the sunlight.
The feathers greater coverts and stockings of the wings they are yellow, even if the ends of these feathers are green in the subspecies Ara macao macao and blue in Ara macao cyanoptera. The t-shirts, as well as the lower coverts of the obispillo, the of the back and both upper and lower part of the tail they are blue. The internal parts of the tail and of the wings are orange-red, lighter than the predominantly Scarlet plumage.
Its bill is hooked, strong enough to cut objects, dig, help climbing and defend themselves, but light in such a way that it does not affect your flight. It consists of two parts, of which the upper is the largest and is off-white, Sometimes a little pink, Besides that it has a small black marks on each side in the region where it joins with the head. It is also black on the tip and base, forming a triangular figure of this color. At its top are its nostrils, almost imperceptible to the naked eye. The under bill, on the other hand, is completely black, like its fleshy language.
The eyes are positioned laterally in the head, and although the exposed part of the cornea is round and seemingly small, the eyeball is large enough reality, even more than the brain. Its irises is light brown on the young but it becomes yellow when reaching the adult age. Around the eyes they have an area of skin between whitish and pink which is apparently nude, Although it is in fact partially covered by small almost imperceptible reddish feathers which form thin sinuous lines.
Their legs they are short but strong, because it has powerful flexor muscles and tendons, allowing you to be upright perching. Their legs ‘zigodactilas‘ they are available in four fingers, two forward and two backwards, and are dark gray.
Morphologically, is very similar to the Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloropterus), However, differ in that the Scarlet Macaw have yellow spots on their wings While in Red-and-green Macaw, as its name implies, stains are completely Green. The same, in the Red-and-green Macaw the thin red lines on the plucked white part of your head they are much more notorious, while the Scarlet Macaw It lacks these lines or are almost imperceptible. At last, in the Red-and-green MacawScarlet Macaw Red is vivid tone, lighter, Stressing in particular in the nape and crown, where tends to Orange.
It is a species that has a very light sexual dimorphism, because the females they are smaller and their bill is more curved, short and thick, In addition to the tail of the male is slightly longer. Even so, It is difficult to determine their sex at a glance; the only reliable way to know him is through a test of collected DNA from blood or feathers, technical or more invasive as the laparoscopy and sewer exploration.
(Wiedenfeld, 1995) – Larger than the species nominal. A dark Scarlet red in the plumage of the head and the body, a wide yellow stripe in the wings, where many feathers have blue tip, and the central feathers of the tail extremely long and wide whose tip is light blue.
The Scarlet Macaw they are distributed through the tropical forests of lowlands and savannas.
In Mexico in remote areas of rainforest.
In Honduras, on the arid slopes of the Pacific, birds forage in open areas (including growing areas); sometimes in the forests of pines above the rainforest in the Mosquito Coast.
In Costa Rica in deciduous forests, wet and open and more edges with tall trees scattered areas.
They inhabit in lowland intact and partially cleared rain forest and gallery forest in Colombia.
In the rainforest, Savannah and plains in Venezuela.
They prefer dry rainforest land in Suriname and the rainforest and savanna in Guyana.
Often near rivers throughout its range.
Below 240 metres in Oaxaca, Mexico, of 1.100 metres in Honduras, 1.500 metres in Costa Rica, 500 metres in Colombia and 450 metres in Venezuela.
The Scarlet Macaw, generally, they can be observed in pairs, in groups of 3/4 birds or in flocks of up to approximately 30 individuals, up to a maximum of 50, in communal roosts in tall trees (including the mangroves).
They often perch on the top of large trees.
In Central America, the Scarlet Macaw nest during the months of December to June in the time dry (Forshaw, 1989; Monterrubio, 1996; Renton, 1998; Renton et to the., 2003).
The macaws they use large mature trees with the average breast height diameter 129 cm.. (Inigoelias, 1996; Carreon-Brook, 2006). Apparently, the macaws Select the highest cavities for nest, taking an average of 19 height m, and with dimensions of average entry 22 cm.. x 32 cm.. (Monterrubio 1996; Carreon-Brook, 2006). They prefer soft tree species for the entrance to the nest cavity can be modified.
Generally, the nests of the Scarlet Macaw they are separated by more than 3 km. (Carreonarroyo, 2006), which would reduce the strong agonistic interactions between couples that nest, and may cause the failure of nests (Renton, 2004; Renton and Brightsmith, 2009).
In Central America they put in 1 to 3 eggs (Monterrubio, 1996, Renton, 1998; Renton et to the., 2003), even if broods have been recorded of up to 4 eggs in South America (Nycander et to the., 1995). In the Lacandon Jungle of Mexico, recorded an average clutch size of 1.6 eggs/female in 1988-1989 (Inigoelias, 1996) and 2.7 eggs/female in 1998- 1999 (Carreon-Brook, 2006).
Hatch on average 1.5 to 2.0 chicks/pair, managing to fly the nest 0.6 to 1.3 young couple that nest (Monterrubio, 1996; Carreon-Brook, 2006; Renton and Brightsmith, 2009).
Feeding in the canopy, usually in silence. May be associated with other parrot species where abundant food.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 10.200.000 km2
The Scarlet Macaw are distributed to a large extent of Central America, from the South of Mexico until Panama and apparently scattered in tropics of South America, from the South to the East of Bolivia.
A sizeable population in Guianas, throughout the Amazon basin of Brazil, to the East of Ecuador and to the East of Peru.
In the North and East of Bolivia, in Santa Cruz, Beni and possibly Pando. Away to the West of Los Andes.
The Scarlet Macaw make seasonal movements in search of fruit and is temporary visitor in some areas. Locally common but obviously in decline range-wide, especially around the centers of development, due to loss of habitat, trade and hunting, both as food and for obtaining their feathers; the population total of Mesoamerica probably not greater than 4.000 individuals.
Extinct the majority of former distribution area in Mexico (not registered in Tamaulipas Since 19th century) and persisting in only limited numbers in the Lacandon Jungle, Chiapas.
Generally rare in Guatemala, Although most common in the more remote areas, as the West's Petén.
Extinct in El Salvador. Generalized, Although rare on the Caribbean slope of Honduras; extinct on the slope of the Pacific. Almost extinct in the Pacific slope of Nicaragua, but persisting in the remote area of the Northeast. Formerly widespread on the slopes of the Caribbean from Costa Rica, now only in the Northeast; few localities in the Pacific slope (for example, the Osa Peninsula). Fairly common in Coiba, Panama. In Venezuela Local. Fairly common in the Amazon basin and Guianas, especially in the more remote areas. Fewer that the Red-and-green Macaw in Guyana and Venezuela.
Widespread in captivity, but rarely bred. CITES Appendix I.
Distribution of subspecies:
Ara macao cyanopterus
(Wiedenfeld, 1995) – They inhabit the area of Mesoamerica between Mexico and Honduras; Currently there are two towns in the southeast of Mexico, one of just 50 individuals in the region of the Chimalapas, Oaxaca (Iñigo et to the 2004; Lazcano-Barrero obs. Pers.) and the other in the Lacandon Jungle in Chiapas, with an estimated population of between 150 and 250 individuals (Iñigo-Elias 1996 & Iñigo-Elias et to the. 2004, Garcia fair).
Given that the Scarlet Macaw they have an extraordinarily wide range - the largest among all the birds of the genus Ara -,and its population, Despite being apparently shrinking, do not fast enough to consider it vulnerable, the Red list of endangered species of the IUCN considers it to be a kind of least concern. However, the Agency drew attention in its “Conservation action plan and sampling of Psitacidae” with regard to the status of the subspecies a.. m. cyanoptera, Since its population had Yes declined rapidly in a period of twenty years. The species also appears from the 1 in August of 1985 in the Appendix I of the Convention on international trade in endangered species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), It forbids the trade of this species within the signatory countries. Originally entered in Appendix III of this organization in 1976, amounted to Appendix II in 1981 and finally it came to Appendix I in before this date.
It is also protected by various laws and decrees national; for example, in Costa Rica, where he spent to deal with around the 80% of the national territory to only the 20% for the year of 1993. Because of its particularly precarious condition within the territory of Mexico, in this country it is regarded from 2000 a priority species for conservation. In Panama, also, is considered to be one of the two species of endangered birds of the country together with the Cotinga. For its part, in Peru is listed as Vulnerable species (VU) According to the Supreme Decree Nº 034-2004-AG from September of 2004. In Guatemala was enacted in 1989 Decree No. 4-89 of the Law of Protected Areas, same with which created the Guatemalan system of Protected Areas, that ensures the protection of species endangered within its territory, including the Scarlet Macaw. In Belize It is sheltered from 1992 by the Environmental Protection Act, It prohibits its trade or possession. Inside Brazil has a similar protection, Since its trade locally or export or possession is not allowed, unless they are breeding or authorized zoos. In Colombia its criterion is «indeterminate» in the Colombian endangered species listing, so it is not considered endangered within that country, Although Yes it receives the protection of the various national laws. In Venezuela Yes it is considered a vulnerable species and is protected by the Protection law to the wildlife.
Among the main factors threatening the survival of this species are the habitat destruction because of deforestation, the oil industry and intentional burning; the fragmentation of populations, the commercial traffic of feathers, eggs and specimens as such to sell them as pets, as well as being a kind of inbreeding and low reproductive rate, and the specialization of the diet of some populations. The problem of the illegal trade It affected him greatly in the 20th century, where among 1975 and 1990 It is estimated that they exported around 1500 specimens. Until the mid of 1980, major exporting countries were those where the Scarlet Macaw reproduces naturally, as Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname. However, by the end of that decade countries as United States, Philippines and Canada they were already major exporters, to the have developed enough local breeding birds and to hold own trade. The main destination of the trade of these birds was always United States. In more recent years, the various national laws have banned the trade of this and other species of birds, Although this illegal practice has not completely eradicated. The major change that has occurred is that most of the birds traded now come from the reproduction in captivity, What is an advantage for buyers since they tend to be healthier and more domesticated birds.
Macao macaw in captivity:
Starting at the 16th century, following the Conquest of America, appeared the European interest to catch various species of parrots, including this one. The traffic of this and other species was growing due to their popularity as pets, by Macaw began to disappear from their habitat in some regions since the 19th century. Its value on the black market, that it can be several thousand dollars, It makes often a more profitable activity for local residents that agriculture, logging of precious woods or even drug trafficking. This is one of the main reasons that have contributed to its disappearance. In fact, the popularity of several species of macaws is such that these animals have become more quoted in the pet market, and they have overcome even the cats and primates.
Sources They point out that a female's Scarlet Macaw was still alive after 33 years in captivity, but it rarely flew probably due to its age; He grew up with a male from 32 years of age, during 22 years, until the two you almost 30 years of age. There are several anecdotal reports that indicate that these birds live longer, However, including a report of a Scarlet Macaw of 37,1 years and a live specimen of 64 years of age. In captivity, these animals have been known of raising starting from 8 years of age.
Some factors that make one Macaw very attractive pet they are your sociable behavior, their colorful plumage and their ability to learn to imitate words, Although it should be noted that this is not one of the species of macaws who better to develop this skill. In addition, It should be noted that «speaking» actually do not understand the meaning of what they say: to how much they relate the sound with some object or event, but never through a process of reasoning. Anyway, in general terms it is a bird very intelligent, with learning ability similar to that of a child aged between five and seven years.
On the other hand, precisely because it is highly social, In addition to that need plenty of space to exercise, It bustling and it has a beak and strong claws which are capable of damaging objects and even hurt people, It is not ideal to live as a pet, Although you can do, preferably in the company of other birds and above all of the same species, in aviaries and zoos right. In fact, is a bird easy to raise even for poultry farmers with little experience, and today it is one of the most common species for breeding in captivity around the world. Also, due to its curious nature and its excellent ability to learn tricks, It is a bird very common in zoos and amusement parks exhibitions.
In 1993, the Scarlet Macaw He was nominated to symbol of the fauna of Honduras and declared as the national bird of this nation, According to Executive Order No. 36-93 issued by the Honduran national Congress. This bird was also chosen as the mascot of the America's Cup 2007 held in Venezuela, which is representative of this country to carry the three colors of their national flag in their plumage. The name given to the pet was «Guaky», which wore the t-shirt color vinotinto's selection of football in that country, as well as eight stars on their wings, to highlight the allusion to the Venezuelan flag. More recently, the Scarlet Macaw began to be coined in the face of the coins of 200 weights Colombian that began to circulate in this country from 2012.
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
– Ara macao cyanoptera (Scarlet Macaw) By: Jesus Gomez pineapple and Jose a.. Valero Pérez
(1) – This has the appearance of a Scarlet Macaw, which have a variable amount of green in the wings. The exact pedigree of this zoo parrot may be known by the zoo By Travis Isaacs from Grapevine, TX, USA (zoo355Uploaded by snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao). Side view. It is raising one of its legs By Peter (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Scarlet Macaw flying away from the photographe By The original uploader was Robert01 at German Wikipedia [CC BY-SA 3.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Scarlet Macaw at Diergaarde Blijdorp, Rotterdam, Netherlands By Jar0d [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Scarlet Macaw in Yucatan, Mexico By Tony Hisgett (originally posted to Flickr as Parrot 2) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Scarlet Macaw at Phoenix Zoo, USA By Khamis Hammoudeh (originally posted to Flickr as <3) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao) by Heather Paul – Flickr
(8) – Guacamayo rojo by m.prinke – Flickr
(9) – Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw) Tarcoles, Costa Rica by Juan Zamora – Flickr
(10) – First edition of Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots. Originally a painting by Edward Lear [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
The Spix's Macaw(Cyanopsitta spixii) has various shades of blue. The head is pale-blue, the wings and tail dark blue. The underside of wings and the tail are black. They have a naked skin in the face grey / Black which sometimes fades to white and white when they are underage.
Bill is completely black, except in the youth having a clean white stripe in the center of the bill. The white band of the bill and the white skin of the face of the youth disappears after 6 months.
The legs are pale grey when they are juveniles, being dark grey, almost black when they are of adults.
The eyes they are dark in the youth, but they fade to white when mature birds.
Sound of the Spix's Macaw.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Guacamayo de Spix.mp3]
Information about the natural ecology and behavior of these birds is limited, now that research not started until they were nothing more than 3 known birds living in the wild.
However, There are records that are associated with Gallery forests dominated by Tabebuia seasonal streams to grow along (streams) in the area caatinga (Thorn scrub semiarid community).
There are reports of the Spix's Macaw inhabiting sheets closed or more common in caatinga habitats (namely, that they do not have trees Tabebuia caraiba). Opinions that the species is ecologically linked with palms Mauritia flexuosa left without support and, in view of the wide availability of these habitats, seems totally unlikely.
When a few birds were discovered in 1980, These showed a strong herding behavior. These and the remaining birds, They showed strong common features, using for example, hangers in the bare branches at the top of the tall trees, making particles and daily flight routes to nesting sites (one of those places, According to reports, was used continuously during 50 years), the last Spix's Macaw which data have, they were strongly linked with the Blue-winged Macaw.
According to reports, sometimes, obsrvados sleeping on top of a cactus, for example, of the species Cereus squamosus.
In nature, the Spix's Macaw They nest in tree hollows, most frequently in Tabebuia caraiba mature, at least to several meters above the ground.
Breeding, in general, is between the months of November-March may vary in relation to the calendar and the intensity of the rains.
The intercourse lasts usually between 2 and 3 minutes and is done with two birds staying together on a perch with one of the legs of the male (usually right) mounted on the rear of the rump of the female.
It is believed that the normal clutch size in nature it was three eggs. However, in captivity, most common clutch size is four and can vary from one to seven. An average egg is of 40 mm x 30 mm and weighs some 20 g.. They lay an egg oval-shaped and white.
The incubation period is of 25-28 days and only female performs tasks of incubation. The females are fed by the male, both within the nest, and outside the nest. The chicks hatch mostly naked with a small amount of cover at the bottom. The emplumamiento occurs in approximately 70 days and captive birds, bred by hand, they tend to become independent between the 100 and 130 days.
Size of the area of distribution (reproduction / resident): 50 km2
The Spix's Macaw they were endemic in the northeast of Brazil, mainly in the State of Bay, but also from Pernambuco. There lived in a large expanse of semi-arid territory known as the Caatinga. Within the Caatinga There are micro-habitats, one of which – the Caraibeira Riparian Woodland, was the home of the Spix's Macaw. This particular habitat area is located near a small, charming town called Curaca, conveniently located along somewhere in the San Francisco River. One of the tributaries that feed to the San Francisco River is the Melancia Creek and it is through this water, where can I find the ancient habitat of the Spix's Macaw.
The Caraibeira (Tabebuia caraiba) It is the dominant tree species occurring along the banks of the Melancia Creek; It was also the most important tree species for the Spix's Macaw, Since it provided nesting hollows, shelter and food for the species.
Possibly previously ranged in one much larger Northeastern area of Brazil, that covers much of the region of the ‘Gerais‘ including the South of Maranhão, to the northeast of Goiás, Southwest of Piauí and North of Bay, but reports from some of these areas are apparently based on finger-pointing and even erroneous information provided by bird hunters.
• Current red list of UICN: Danger critic – Possibly extinct in the wild
• Population trend: Unknown
The Spix's Macaw It may not be the largest or most colourful species of macaws but is the Parrot with more critical danger of extinction in the world, no known wild specimens(UICN, 2004).
While this species exists captive in various populations, the last known wild individual disappeared at the end of 2000, mainly as a result of the capture for the bird trade Wild addition by the habitat loss. However, still you can not boast of extinct in the wild until all potential areas of habitat have been thoroughly checked.
Any remaining population is likely to be small, and for these reasons the Spix's Macaw It is treated as a species in critically endangered (possibly extinct in the wild).
– CITES Appendix I, protected by the Brazilian legislation.
– Ten years of protection, the restoration of the habitat and a variety of community-based conservation in course programmes, they will pave the way for future reintroductions (Y. de Melo Barros in litt., 1999, 2000, Caparroz et to the. 2001).
– IBAMA It established the Permanent Committee of the Brazilian Government for the recovery of the Spix's Macaw and cooperation between the holders of birds resulted in annual increments in the captive population.
– This body is succeeded by the Working Group for the recovery of the Spix's macaw (Me and Melo Barros 2006), now supervised by the Chico Mendes biodiversity conservation Institute (ICMBio). This group is responsible for coordinating the captive breeding program, having on-site facilities of reintroduction later followed by breeding facilities.
– Other official media are found in Brazil and Germany.
– Including the birds that have not been registered by the official program, It is believed that more than 90 Spix's macaw can exist in captivity around the world.
– The success of breeding has occurred within some registered facilities, including AWWP and LPF. The latter has kept the species from 1984 and in 2007 a new breeding centre was opened for the Spix's macaws (Anon 2008a).
– AWWP raised successfully five chicks in 2012 and seven in 2013 (Gillespie 2014).
– In 2013 and 2014, the population of captive breeding females in AWWP they were artificially inseminated, an egg-laying take place successfully (Anon 2015, Tomiska 2015).
– Management and recovery of the species in captivity is in preparation for this species.
– In February of 2009 To the Wabra Wildlife Preservation announced the purchase of the 2.200 acres of the Concord Farm in the State of Bay, Brazil, the site has one of the last reported sightings of Spix's Macaw Wild, in October of 2000 (To Wabra Wildlife Preservation undated).
– Concord Farm It was also the basis of the field project of the Spix's Macaw, funded largely by the LPF, that operated in whole decade of 1990 until the completion in 2002, and the site for the release of the single prisoner of Spix's Macaw missing by returning to their natural habitat, in 1995.
– Concord Farm borders with the 400 acres of the Gangorra Farm, previously acquired by a consortium of conservation.
– Intended to allow that both farms can return to a more natural state by removing domestic cattle, in order to, long-term, the place can be a valuable habitat for the future restoration of a wild population of Spix's Macaw.
Conservation Actions Proposed:
– Identify a release site suitable for the annual potential release of birds bred in captivity from between 2013 and 2030 Depending on the success of the captive breeding efforts (Me and Melo Barros 2006).
– Continue to develop artificial reproduction techniques to increase the population.
– Protect and enhance the habitat at the site of release identified (Me and Melo Barros 2006).
– Establish a well equipped facility in place of reintroduction in Praia do Forte under property IBAMA (Me and Melo Barros 2006).
– Introduce chicks bred in captivity and ensure its protection of trappers.
– Continue the cooperation between the holders of captive birds.
– Continue ecological studies to assess the need for habitat management (Snyder et to the., 2000).
– Continue the community programs.
Spix's Macaw in captivity:
Some suggest that there may be up to 120 These beautiful birds in private collections – the exact number is unknown. However, What is certain is that the latter Spix's macaws survivors are among the most valuable and protected birds in the world.
Its longevity is estimated between 20-30 years in the nature and 20-40 years in captivity. The last Spix's Macaw Wild acquaintance had at least 20 years of age, at the time of his disappearance. There are two Spix's macaws in captivity who were born in 1976 and these are the Macaws oldest registered species.
– Spix’s Macaw, Little Blue Macaw (English).
– Ara de Spix (French).
– Spixara, Spix Ara, Spix-Ara (German).
– Ararinha-azul (Portuguese).
– Ararinha-azul (Portuguese (Brazil)).
– Guacamayo de Spix, Maracaná Azul (Spanish).
(1) – A Spix’s Macaw in Vogelpark Walsrode, Walsrode, Germany in about 1980 By Rüdiger Stehn from Kiel, Deutschland (71 Spix-Ara) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A juvenile in captivity. Note white stripe along top of beak and pale-grey bare facial skin By The original uploader was Robert01 at German Wikipedia(Original text: Robert01) (Self-photographed) [CC BY-SA 2.0 of], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Exhibit in Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany. Photography was permitted in the museum without restriction By Daderot (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – guacamayo de Spix (Cyanopsitta spixii) por Lycaon – Fauna extinta recientemente, redescubierta, nuevas especies – ellinceiberico
(5) – Cyanopsitta spixii – Parrot-birds
(6) – An 1878 painting of an adult by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons