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Dogo Español

The Spanish Mastiff He has the instinct of guard and defense still preserving the hunting instinct and dam;
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Spanish Mastiff history

Dam dogs entered in the Iberian tribes of barbarians beyond accompanying by the 4th century; Swabians, Vandals and Alans they were guarding their livestock and transhumant with this type of dog camps.

Throughout history, these animals are used in different functions with a common denominator; his instinct for hunting and dam as a tool at the service of hunting; management of livestock; guardianship and custody of properties; dog of war; etc.

Kings, feudal lords, mercenaries, butchers, livestock, and even bullfighting, These lines make a very important benchmark in the history of our country, reaching its greatest height during the period called "Spanish romanticism". The historical references are so numerous as diverse. According to their morphological characteristics they would use for some purposes or other; more light and more broker-type dogs were used for hunting, and the more corpulent and bobbleheads were employed in tasks requiring more power or strength of stop that resistance. Where, as and when it begins to be selected systematically towards one or another tendency and under one or another name is hardly something decipherable. Then spoke of "types" - the concept of race is much more modern in canine terms -; and under the concept of "type" coexist different morphologies with certain common traits. The more generic denominations of this "type" have been "Alans"; "prey";"Bulldogs"; "Bull dogs"; "Alans butchers"; "chatos"; etc.

Sometimes referring to specific differential features called them in one way or another, and other times of generically under the same concept to different varieties. A current "taxonomic" classification of these dogs attending to the historical references, It would be an anachronism of difficult zootechnical solution.
We found centuries-old descriptions — as in the "book of the Monteria"- that under the same concept of "Alano" gets to the lightweight type for hunting with reference to other heavier variety for the grip of cattle.

But we also find arguments and references supporting morphological and functional differences between these "prey"; see the description of "Dogo" by the Royal Academy of the language edition of 20th century; The distinction by the Royal Canine society of Spain in 1911 between "Spanish prey" in his role as guardian and utility and "Alano" in the group of trace and gamekeeping; the Medal with the inscription "Dogue de Burgos" of the year 1625 ; documented deliveries of indigenous British Bulldogs and Italians, etc.

Therefore, far from squinting not without ambiguities sometimes etymological or linguistic issues, We focus on the constructive process, that is none other that history with all its variability of types reconciled, with the current reality of the concept of "race", which requires adjustment to more defined patterns.

Under this purpose is born the project for the recovery of the Spanish Mastiff; It would include the type of alano or dam heavy and most full-bodied of our peninsula.

"Why unify under the denomination of"?Doge”? It was to use a name that meet a series of requirements:

    1. Having historic endorsement in number and significance of reference
    2. Generic and identifiable name with these morphologies
    3. Avoid controversial connotations related to endangerment
    4. Avoid localisms or allusion to obsolete or too restrictive functions

"Results of this denomination of"Doge"is that better encompasses the concept of"molosser Iberian”.

"We have the definition of"Doge"by the Royal Academy of the language; our Dogos influenced directly or indirectly the rest of related breeds; There are manifestos of the Crown of Aragon for shipment of Doges Spaniards to Naples; the Governor of Cuba concerning the delivery of "dams Spaniards" the British Navy for the control of Maroons; they exported extensively to England; in Germany they recreated to the extinct "bullesbeizer" through the Boxer crossing a bulldog with a bitch of a dam called "Flora" of clear Hispanic descent; look the first boxer rebellion of late 19th to see the resemblance of the Germanic race of that period with our rustic flat autochthonous.
The number of references is countless.

  • 2. Origins of the process of recovery of the Spanish Mastiff

In the Decade of the 80, with the onset of the Alano recovery already referred to the existence of different typologies and trends. Then used the terms "type, or livestock trend line "Vs" hunter type "as a differential label.

"The fusion of"Alans or dams"with dogs"villains' land, -light grazing and cutting Lupoid dogs - gave a versatile hybrid that preserved the atavism of grip dogs, but with the spark and resistance of the shepherds. "Hence the"Villain of the Encartaciones”, a derivative of the Alano in its lightest version.

The Spanish Alano is standardized to guiding their selection was an intermediate type. The process concludes with the official recognition of the breed in the year 2003 on the part of the Royal Canine society of Spain.

In short the basic trends on a bipolar scale we find the following picture:

    1° / On the one hand light runners and discharged structures morphology;

    2° / On the pole opposite the types most corpulent and brachycephalic;

    3º / And between both ends, a majority and consolidated intermediate type.

The types"corridor” e “intermediate"they would be represented by"Villains” y “Alans"respectively; leaving uncovered the most molosser niche of the scale.

Was justice detach for the first time since the beginning of the century past our "most corpulent prey" of its parent alanica, and make it not under the restriction that prints a "trend", But reconciling the idiosyncrasies of this type with the concept of current race. Any trend that takes body and prominence is likely to empower low-status of race; It is just a matter that under the right circumstances: having genetic material; references historical; and above all with a coordinated group willing to redirect selection facilitate this work.

With the recovery of the Alano was foreseeable the tribute that would pay the extreme types; marginalized to a purely testimonial presence in directly proportional relationship to the fixing of the intermediate alano. "Under this scenario our last strongholds of"Bulldogs"They would be doomed to extinction as a potential race or at best relegated to trend within moderation imposed by the standard of the Alano.

Were fortunately born individuals of this kind in litters of Alans. We have continued to use some breeders as players occasionally, and if only it were looking for complementarity, these genes have continued there. Other breeders - special mention to Francisco Rincon– they have had the courage not only to continue using Alans in this trend, but do so looking for fix this type rather than complement it. "Thanks to this recovery project of the"Spanish Mastiff"on the genetic basis of the"Alano"is a reality.

Physical characteristics

One of the most controversial issues in mapping out the path and targets in selection, It is to be clear where it started and where we are going; define that niche is covered with this project, and do it with its own identity, trying to converge as little as possible with the rest of related breeds. Our Doge is encuadraría between the molossians of arenas and the molosoides group.

More related with our races Spanish Mastiff indigenous, both by type and by junction, they would be the Dogo Canario; the Spanish Alano; the Bou CA; the Dogue de Bordeaux; the Italian Corso Dog; and the bullmasfiff.

Based on a thorough analysis of our project differential standard, We have our niche secured connection all them. Of echo, There is greater overlap between many terriers; bracoides; pastors and Nordic - to mention a few families- to enter our Spanish Mastiff and the rest of related.

To see clearly where lie these differences, -others, such as the expression and the type are more difficult to quantify- We took the average values of each racial pattern and vein results with our Spanish Mastiff. We will look at an example, that where could have some overlap in weight, There will be no size, or where any size won't be it in proportions; not to mention in expression and typicity although not easily described values.

To this end we present the attached table offering average in those easier to obtain parameters values: by adding maximum and minimum thresholds and dividing between two we took weights and middle of each standard sizes. We do so only in males by simplifying data and observe such differences at a glance quickly.

Related breeds Spanish Mastiff

Delving into these differences, other variables - such as the facial skull lines; injuries such as the cephalic and thoracic perimeters; proportion of muzzle to skull; eye color; etc.,- they come to make it even more clear to what's our niche and do so without conflict of competence with respect to the rest of related breeds.

Breed standard
SPANISH MASTIFF BREED PATTERN

Racial pattern

– HISTORICAL REVIEWS:

During the period between the end of the s. IV and the 5th century, the alano village will occupy large areas of southern Europe, among others the Iberian peninsula. This town is made accompanied by their dogs of prey, which is mestizan with powerful dogs brought to the peninsula by the Phoenicians and Romans, mainly.

Miscegenation which gives rise to which most would be later called Dogo, Dam or flat Spanish among other synonyms. His name is mainly due to their excellent qualities in the management and control of the cattle of bravo and semi-bravo type, a native of the Iberian peninsula.
Later, the emergence of bullfighting, would that they would play a prominent role in the same, in the so-called luck of dogs, until the beginning of the 20th century.

Also, for its excellent qualities for the defence and guard, It would be used as a dog of war, being very appreciated by soldiers of other Nations, especially for the control of rebels in the Americas.

– GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Molosser type, moderately brevilineo, very strong, rustic and endowed with tremendous power.
Back straight and compact. It presents a notable sexual dimorphism, males showing a cranial region more developed and a stronger type. Medium to large-sized, brachycephalic, It has a robust structure as a whole, Compact and powerful.

– TEMPERAMENT:

Sweet and affable character with the family. Tireless worker and multifaceted.
Very attentive and especially gifted for the guardian, Defense, management and control of cattle. Easy management and education. He is very self-confident.

– HEAD:

Brachycephalic, head strong and powerful.

– CRANIAL REGION:

Slightly convex skull, square, wide and very strong. Average length, always in harmony with the rest of the body. Facial skull lines slightly converging. Well pointed front Groove. Well developed temporal muscles. The zygomatic arches, superciliary, as well as the temporal bones, They show a high development. The skin is smooth, without wrinkles. Very marked stop.

– FACIAL REGION (FACE):
    – Truffle: Pigmented black and complete. Large and wide holes.
    Snout: It is a square, strong, occupying the 34% the total length of the skull, admitting a deviation of the 2%. Light folds are supported.
    – Lips: thick and well Pigmented; desirable that they do not hang up too.
    – JAWS and teeth: they must be very powerful. The wide enough to permit a correct insertion of dental. Preferably complete (42 parts). The teeth are not visible with the mouth closed. Canine blunt, short, wide and well separated. Is supported as the Scissor bite, Clip, reverse scissor, as well as a slight prognathism not exceeding 0, 5 cm. Well developed JAWS.
    – Eyes: medium-sized, almond and separate. From dark Hazel to amber and yellow. Adhered, well pigmented eyelid. Frank gaze and front. With no apparent conjunctiva and little white.
    – Ears: medium-high insertion. Preferably folded over the face and slightly rounded at the bottom. Medium to small size.
– NECK:

Well muscled, slightly arched and of medium length. Allowed light folds in the jowl area. Crushing it slightly from the shoulders to the head.

– BODY:
    – Cross: well marked, average implementation and descended toward the back.
    – Back: medium, flat and well developed.
    – Pork loin: short, broad, strong and convex.
    – Rump: slightly downed. It is short, wide and well developed.
    – Breast : width, deep, very strong and developed. Slightly cylindrical rib. Profile down to the elbow. The thoracic perimeter, in its widest part must pass at least in a 25% the height at the withers.
    – Abdomen: moderately retracted.
    – Tail: average insertion. Great thick at its base is tuned toward aims it, not to exceed the Hock. It is not wound on the tip.
– FORELIMBS:
    – Shoulder: strong, with prominent muscles. Slightly oblique.
    – Arms: good muscular, Plumb and separate.
    – Elbows: neither returned to the outside or very attached to the chest.
    – Forearms: good muscular, straight and with good bone.
    – Previous feet: rounded, made of strong fingers that reinforce the appearance of big cats.
– HIND LIMBS:

Strong and properly angled.

    – Thighs: apparent and very developed.
    – Hocks: short, vigorous and moderate-angle. RAM does not present.
    – Back feet: rounded, slightly longer than the previous ones and fat fingers.
– MOVEMENT:

The typical passage of the race is the trot. This is shown effortlessly, fluid and agile.
The back is at the same level, parallel to the direction of motion. The head tends to be low. Explosive Gallop.

– SKIN:

Thick and attached except in the neck, It is somewhat more lax.

– FUR:
    – Hair: moderately short (never satin), dense, acrid, There may be a light Undercoat. The hair should reinforce the rustic appearance of the individual.
    – Color: Griffon and barcinos or Brindle in all its varieties; alobados; carbonates or Chair; black and Brindle; black and Fawn and peeps. With or without mask.
– SIZE AND WEIGHT:
    – Height at the withers: males from 61cm to 66cm, females of 58cm to 63 cm.. Supported a tolerance of 2cm at the top.
    – Weight: males between 45 and 53 kgr, females between 40 and 47 kgr. Supported a tolerance of 3 kgr.
    – Weight and height must be in harmony:
    – IPT (average weight size) in males = 49 kgs / 63,5 CMS = 0'77
    – Females average IPT = 43,5 kgs / 60,5 CMS = 0'72
    – Between racial IPT = 0'745
    – ILA (index height/length) means males = height/length = 0'92 (a 8% longer than high).
– FAULTS:

Any deviation from the above criteria should be considered absence and severity of this is considered to the degree of deviation to the standard.

– SERIOUS FAULTS:
    – Shyness.
    – Unjustified aggression.
    – Muzzle too short or too long.
    – Overload.
    – Dorsal downline.
    – Lack of two premolars.
– MISS PLAYOFFS:
    – Deafness.
    – Albinism, lack of pigmentation.
    – Cryptorchidism or monorquidismo.
    – Lack of four premolars.
    – Mandibular torque.
    – Long hair.
    – Amputated tail.
Character and skills of the Spanish Mastiff

The historical evidence make it clear that we have a purely functional breed. We have already referred to some of the work that played these dogs; "in bullfighting for the fate of"dogs the bull”; for management of livestock and hunting; as dog's force to the dam or grip of cattle; also as a guard dog or defense accompanied the armies. They had great prominence in America during the colonial period for the control of Maroons and the birth of much of the functional races of that continent: Cimarrón Uruguayo; Fila Brasileiro; Cordoba fighting dog and rear Argentine Dogo; antique American Bulldogss; dams of the Caribbean; etc.

While it is true that society evolves and the times are changing, It is not less true that the potential of this group can bring much as working dog. We want that the Spanish Mastiff still a dog's working to the extent of their possibilities; obviously not to compete with pastors in agility or mondioring not with villains in a half marathon; the limitations will be marked by their morphological characteristics. But can be outlined minimum tests to assess parameters related to the power; arrojo and safety; meet a few minimum requirements in terms of the physical potential; everything is a matter of to agree according to the reality of the project.

Obviously if demand parameters that agility and resistance prevail, We fall into the trap of converge towards lighter types, Hence how complicated it is sometimes drawn guidelines in this regard. It is not comparing ourselves to other breeds, fate of squeezing the maximum potential of our. If we have something clear who decided to give shape to this project, is that we do not want that our Spanish Mastiffdoes not become a mere "showcase" nice only to recreate the reminiscent of the old dogs of Bull. These dogs should remain able to meet certain requirements and do so with the solvency to its morphology.

I have always defended the individual initiative of each owner, each breeder; the selection and therefore evolution or a breed standardization, It does not necessarily imply a collective effort of all and each of the owners and breeders; It is enough to encourage those who wish to engage one degree more do so and facilitate the improvement of the rest. It is not so much a question of obligation and requirement, but to encourage those who want to use their energies in the improvement of the breed through its functional aspect.

With a small group of fans "motivated" in this sense and good working dogs for the benefit of the community, There must be tangible results long-term average allowing go differentiating us from other groupings of similar cut but yes have become mere exaggerated displays of what were. To minimize the danger of this "impairment" - meaning that the loss of their ancestral features for no more spectacular-, the breed Club can play an important role in this regard.

You can trade Club with veterinary clinics that allow discounts to partners in the management of health control parameters (plates of hips and elbows dysplasia; hemivertebrae; heart tests; etc.); even subsidize club as part of these costs; establish ranking of individuals recommended by the club for breeding; designing tests of work; etc. It's all about go mapping objectives and study feasibility of each.

Spanish Mastiff pictures
  • Alternative names of the Spanish Mastiff: PRESA, CHATO, PERRO DE TOROS, ALANO GANADERO
  • Among the group of molossians arenas and molosoides.

Dogs breeds: Spanish Mastiff

Sources:

Images:

  • (1),(2),(3),(4),(5),(7),(8),(9),(10) – Spanish Mastiff “The thirds” (Photos)
  • (6) – ROMERO DE LOS TARANTOS – Los Tarantos
  • (11),(12),(13) – Spanish Mastiff national Club (Photos)
 
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