Dam dogs entered in the Iberian tribes of barbarians beyond accompanying by the 4th century; Swabians, Vandals and Alans they were guarding their livestock and transhumant with this type of dog camps.
Throughout history, these animals are used in different functions with a common denominator; his instinct for hunting and dam as a tool at the service of hunting; management of livestock; guardianship and custody of properties; dog of war; etc.
Kings, feudal lords, mercenaries, butchers, livestock, and even bullfighting, These lines make a very important benchmark in the history of our country, reaching its greatest height during the period called "Spanish romanticism". The historical references are so numerous as diverse. According to their morphological characteristics they would use for some purposes or other; more light and more broker-type dogs were used for hunting, and the more corpulent and bobbleheads were employed in tasks requiring more power or strength of stop that resistance. Where, as and when it begins to be selected systematically towards one or another tendency and under one or another name is hardly something decipherable. Then spoke of "types" - the concept of race is much more modern in canine terms -; and under the concept of "type" coexist different morphologies with certain common traits. The more generic denominations of this "type" have been "Alans"; "prey";"Bulldogs"; "Bull dogs"; "Alans butchers"; "chatos"; etc.
Sometimes referring to specific differential features called them in one way or another, and other times of generically under the same concept to different varieties. A current "taxonomic" classification of these dogs attending to the historical references, It would be an anachronism of difficult zootechnical solution.
We found centuries-old descriptions — as in the "book of the Monteria"- that under the same concept of "Alano" gets to the lightweight type for hunting with reference to other heavier variety for the grip of cattle.
But we also find arguments and references supporting morphological and functional differences between these "prey"; see the description of "Dogo" by the Royal Academy of the language edition of 20th century; The distinction by the Royal Canine society of Spain in 1911 between "Spanish prey" in his role as guardian and utility and "Alano" in the group of trace and gamekeeping; the Medal with the inscription "Dogue de Burgos" of the year 1625 ; documented deliveries of indigenous British Bulldogs and Italians, etc.
Therefore, far from squinting not without ambiguities sometimes etymological or linguistic issues, We focus on the constructive process, that is none other that history with all its variability of types reconciled, with the current reality of the concept of "race", which requires adjustment to more defined patterns.
Under this purpose is born the project for the recovery of the Spanish Mastiff; It would include the type of alano or dam heavy and most full-bodied of our peninsula.
"Why unify under the denomination of"?Doge”? It was to use a name that meet a series of requirements:
- 1. Having historic endorsement in number and significance of reference
2. Generic and identifiable name with these morphologies
3. Avoid controversial connotations related to endangerment
4. Avoid localisms or allusion to obsolete or too restrictive functions
"Results of this denomination of"Doge"is that better encompasses the concept of"molosser Iberian”.
"We have the definition of"Doge"by the Royal Academy of the language; our Dogos influenced directly or indirectly the rest of related breeds; There are manifestos of the Crown of Aragon for shipment of Doges Spaniards to Naples; the Governor of Cuba concerning the delivery of "dams Spaniards" the British Navy for the control of Maroons; they exported extensively to England; in Germany they recreated to the extinct "bullesbeizer" through the Boxer crossing a bulldog with a bitch of a dam called "Flora" of clear Hispanic descent; look the first boxer rebellion of late 19th to see the resemblance of the Germanic race of that period with our rustic flat autochthonous.
The number of references is countless.
- 2. Origins of the process of recovery of the Spanish Mastiff
In the Decade of the 80, with the onset of the Alano recovery already referred to the existence of different typologies and trends. Then used the terms "type, or livestock trend line "Vs" hunter type "as a differential label.
"The fusion of"Alans or dams"with dogs"villains' land, -light grazing and cutting Lupoid dogs - gave a versatile hybrid that preserved the atavism of grip dogs, but with the spark and resistance of the shepherds. "Hence the"Villain of the Encartaciones”, a derivative of the Alano in its lightest version.
The Spanish Alano is standardized to guiding their selection was an intermediate type. The process concludes with the official recognition of the breed in the year 2003 on the part of the Royal Canine society of Spain.
In short the basic trends on a bipolar scale we find the following picture:
- 1° / On the one hand light runners and discharged structures morphology;
2° / On the pole opposite the types most corpulent and brachycephalic;
3º / And between both ends, a majority and consolidated intermediate type.
The types"corridor” e “intermediate"they would be represented by"Villains” y “Alans"respectively; leaving uncovered the most molosser niche of the scale.
Was justice detach for the first time since the beginning of the century past our "most corpulent prey" of its parent alanica, and make it not under the restriction that prints a "trend", But reconciling the idiosyncrasies of this type with the concept of current race. Any trend that takes body and prominence is likely to empower low-status of race; It is just a matter that under the right circumstances: having genetic material; references historical; and above all with a coordinated group willing to redirect selection facilitate this work.
With the recovery of the Alano was foreseeable the tribute that would pay the extreme types; marginalized to a purely testimonial presence in directly proportional relationship to the fixing of the intermediate alano. "Under this scenario our last strongholds of"Bulldogs"They would be doomed to extinction as a potential race or at best relegated to trend within moderation imposed by the standard of the Alano.
Were fortunately born individuals of this kind in litters of Alans. We have continued to use some breeders as players occasionally, and if only it were looking for complementarity, these genes have continued there. Other breeders - special mention to Francisco Rincon– they have had the courage not only to continue using Alans in this trend, but do so looking for fix this type rather than complement it. "Thanks to this recovery project of the"Spanish Mastiff"on the genetic basis of the"Alano"is a reality.
One of the most controversial issues in mapping out the path and targets in selection, It is to be clear where it started and where we are going; define that niche is covered with this project, and do it with its own identity, trying to converge as little as possible with the rest of related breeds. Our Doge is encuadraría between the molossians of arenas and the molosoides group.
More related with our races Spanish Mastiff indigenous, both by type and by junction, they would be the Dogo Canario; the Spanish Alano; the Bou CA; the Dogue de Bordeaux; the Italian Corso Dog; and the bullmasfiff.
Based on a thorough analysis of our project differential standard, We have our niche secured connection all them. Of echo, There is greater overlap between many terriers; bracoides; pastors and Nordic - to mention a few families- to enter our Spanish Mastiff and the rest of related.
To see clearly where lie these differences, -others, such as the expression and the type are more difficult to quantify- We took the average values of each racial pattern and vein results with our Spanish Mastiff. We will look at an example, that where could have some overlap in weight, There will be no size, or where any size won't be it in proportions; not to mention in expression and typicity although not easily described values.
To this end we present the attached table offering average in those easier to obtain parameters values: by adding maximum and minimum thresholds and dividing between two we took weights and middle of each standard sizes. We do so only in males by simplifying data and observe such differences at a glance quickly.
Delving into these differences, other variables - such as the facial skull lines; injuries such as the cephalic and thoracic perimeters; proportion of muzzle to skull; eye color; etc.,- they come to make it even more clear to what's our niche and do so without conflict of competence with respect to the rest of related breeds.
The historical evidence make it clear that we have a purely functional breed. We have already referred to some of the work that played these dogs; "in bullfighting for the fate of"dogs the bull”; for management of livestock and hunting; as dog's force to the dam or grip of cattle; also as a guard dog or defense accompanied the armies. They had great prominence in America during the colonial period for the control of Maroons and the birth of much of the functional races of that continent: Cimarrón Uruguayo; Fila Brasileiro; Cordoba fighting dog and rear Argentine Dogo; antique American Bulldogss; dams of the Caribbean; etc.
While it is true that society evolves and the times are changing, It is not less true that the potential of this group can bring much as working dog. We want that the Spanish Mastiff still a dog's working to the extent of their possibilities; obviously not to compete with pastors in agility or mondioring not with villains in a half marathon; the limitations will be marked by their morphological characteristics. But can be outlined minimum tests to assess parameters related to the power; arrojo and safety; meet a few minimum requirements in terms of the physical potential; everything is a matter of to agree according to the reality of the project.
Obviously if demand parameters that agility and resistance prevail, We fall into the trap of converge towards lighter types, Hence how complicated it is sometimes drawn guidelines in this regard. It is not comparing ourselves to other breeds, fate of squeezing the maximum potential of our. If we have something clear who decided to give shape to this project, is that we do not want that our Spanish Mastiffdoes not become a mere "showcase" nice only to recreate the reminiscent of the old dogs of Bull. These dogs should remain able to meet certain requirements and do so with the solvency to its morphology.
I have always defended the individual initiative of each owner, each breeder; the selection and therefore evolution or a breed standardization, It does not necessarily imply a collective effort of all and each of the owners and breeders; It is enough to encourage those who wish to engage one degree more do so and facilitate the improvement of the rest. It is not so much a question of obligation and requirement, but to encourage those who want to use their energies in the improvement of the breed through its functional aspect.
With a small group of fans "motivated" in this sense and good working dogs for the benefit of the community, There must be tangible results long-term average allowing go differentiating us from other groupings of similar cut but yes have become mere exaggerated displays of what were. To minimize the danger of this "impairment" - meaning that the loss of their ancestral features for no more spectacular-, the breed Club can play an important role in this regard.
You can trade Club with veterinary clinics that allow discounts to partners in the management of health control parameters (plates of hips and elbows dysplasia; hemivertebrae; heart tests; etc.); even subsidize club as part of these costs; establish ranking of individuals recommended by the club for breeding; designing tests of work; etc. It's all about go mapping objectives and study feasibility of each.
- Alternative names of the Spanish Mastiff: PRESA, CHATO, PERRO DE TOROS, ALANO GANADERO
- Among the group of molossians arenas and molosoides.
Dogs breeds: Spanish Mastiff