Turquoise-winged Parrotlet
Forpus spengeli

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

Description:

12–13 cm. length and 28 g. of weight.

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet

The male of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli) It has shades of blue at the bottom of the back, still it rump of a turquoise hue; turquoise / blue with purple on underwing-coverts and axillary.

The wing coverts are dark green. Primary coverts are violet; wing edge bright green. Supracaudals coverts are bright green; undertail-coverts, bright yellow. Dark brown eyes with iris gray; flesh-colored legs; peak light colored horn.

The female It is green instead of blue; their face is green / yellow, It is his forecrown yellower.

taxonomy:

Until now treated as conspecific the species Forpus xanthopterygius, or sometimes as a subspecies of Forpus passerinus, or a subspecies of Forpus cyanopygius. differs, However, of the Forpus xanthopterygius in pale turquoise against the rich color tone blue rump and of the wing-coverts of the male; in the dark blue, against the rich blue color in underwing-coverts of the male; the forecrown and lores yellow in female.

  • Sound of the Turquoise-winged Parrotlet.

Habitat:

they prefer forested habitats drier as open forests and riparian, closed caatinga; Also they found in savannas, palm groves, semiarid scrub and grassland areas.

With feed in open areas and sometimes on the floor. Highly social; found in groups of up 50 individuals.

Reproduction:

Breeding season, May-August. Clutch, 3-7 eggs.

Food:

Diet Turquoise-winged Parrotlet in their natural environment it is composed of fruit of Cecropia, seeds of Mikania and tremble mirantha and flowers of Ambrosia and Marcgravia.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 29.200 km2

Restricted north of Colombia, from the coastal region Caribbean western and southern mountains Santa Marta, Atlantic, south along the Magdalena river in Bolivar and César.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Justification of the Red List Category

Although this species may have a small range, It not believed to approach the thresholds for vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20.000 km2 combinan con un tamaño gama disminución o fluctuante, hábitat medida / calidad, o tamaño de la población y un pequeño número de localidades o fragmentación severa). La tendencia de la población no se conoce, pero la población no se cree que esté disminuyendo con la rapidez suficiente como para acercarse a los umbrales del criterio tendencia de la población (> 30% decrease of more than ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable according to the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con una disminución continua estima en> 10% in ten years or three generations, or a specific population structure). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least concern.

Justification of the population

The world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as rare and local (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Justification trend

The population trend is unknown, but according to some reports, the species may be declining. (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Cotorrita aliturquesa in captivity:

Rare.

Alternative names:

Blue-winged Parrotlet (spengeli), Blue-winged Parrotlet (Turquoise-winged), Green-rumped Parrotlet (spengeli), Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (English).
oui de Spengel, Toui de Spix (spengeli), Toui été (spengeli) (French).
Türkisflügel-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Cotorrita aliturquesa (Spanish).

Gustav Hartlaub

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli
Citation: (Hartlaub, 1885)
Protonimo: Psittacula spengeli

Images Turquoise-winged Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Turquoise-winged Parrotlet (Forpus spengeli)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (24-3-15 Loro Parque) by barFlickr
(2) – (above) Psittacula spengleri [sic] = Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli (Hartlaub, 1885), ?♂ (below) Psittacula cyanochlora = Forpus passerinus cyanochlorus (Schlegel, 1864), ♂ by Joseph Smit [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: ndrew Spencer, XC165598. accessible www.xeno-canto.org/165598

Mexican Parrotlet
Forpus cyanopygius

Mexican Parrotlet

Description:

13–14 cm. long and 30-37 grams.

Mexican Parrotlet

The Mexican Parrotlet (Forpus cyanopygius) has lores, cheeks, forecrown and ear-coverts, brighter yellowish green.

The average area crown to the top of the back, green; lower back, rump and uppertail-coverts, turquoise. Great coverts turquoise, other coverts, green. Primaries green, secondaries dark turquoise blue color with narrow edges outerweb. Under the wings turquoise blue and green, the flight feather dark blue-green. Underparts green tinged with yellow. Upper, the tail is green; undertail, duller. Bill and cere pale grayish; bare periophthalmic grey; irises dark brown; legs pink.

Female all green. Immature as female, with some blue feathers on the rump and in the wing-coverts, in the case of young male.

hybrids:

Forpus [conspicillatus x cyanopygius] (hybrid)
Forpus [heaven x cyanopygius] (hybrid)
Forpus [cyanopygius x passerinus] (hybrid)

  • Sound of the Mexican Parrotlet.

Description 2 subspecies:

Two subspecies. However, some authorities regarded the northern birds range as a third subspecies (Forpus cyanopygius pallidus), doubtfully distinct from the nominees. See also Note on Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius).

Habitat:

The Habitat of the Mexican Parrotlet are the gallery forests and deciduous forests, plantations, scrub, semiarid open field and trees cultivated areas; mainly observed in lowlands and foothills largest number of records in southern Sonora to 360-455 m; at higher altitudes in western Durango and Zacatecas, with higher limit 1.320 m.

Aptitudes breeding birds have been observed above 900 indicating possible breeding meters higher altitudes. Gregarious, forming flocks 4-30 or more, sometimes in company Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula canicularis).

Reproduction:

Breeding season may July. Clutch three eggs in captivity.

Food:

Little information on diet or breeding: birds observed taking fruits Ficus, berries and grass seed soil.

Distribution y status:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 177.000 km2

Endemic West Mexico from Alamos in the South of Sonora to the South by Sinaloa, Nayarit (including the Islands Three Marias) and Jalisco until Colima, with the southernmost record in the Manzanillo Bay (19 ° 03’N).

Its range extends eastward Durango and Zacatecas. irregular population with widely fluctuating local abundance, perhaps in relation to the availability of local foods. There has been a large-scale modification of habitats within range but the species remain common (at least locally). Birds in the Tres Marias Island Perhaps they are in risk of extinction.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Near-threatened.

• Population trend: In decline.

Justification of the red list category

The species has risen to near threatened because its population has probably been reduced to a rate close to 30% during three generations (12 years), depending on the estimated operating levels and reducing the area of ​​occupancy and extent of occurrence; almost meet the listing requirements as threatened under the criteria A2cd + 3cd + 4cd. If the declinations are found to exceed the 30% then the species would qualify for Vulnerable lift. If there is evidence suggesting that the global population of this species is <10.000 mature individuals, and it is suffering a steady decline in> 10% in three generations (until 100 years in the future), also qualify to lift Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

Partners in Flight estimated that the population number less than 50.000 individuals (A. Punjabi in some. 2008), so it is placed in the band 20.000 to 49.999 copies here.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population is declining rapidly due to moderately heavy pressure from his capture by illegal trade (Cantu et al ., 2007, Marín-Togo et al ., 2012). According to reports, the population of the island Three Marias It has decreased (Collar y Bushman 2014).

Threats

The capture for trade in wild birds It poses a serious threat to a 8.000 individuals illegally caught per year (Cantu et al ., 2007). The range of the species is found in one of the main routes for illegal trade in parrots Mexico and it is thought that the heavy exploitation of the species is an important factor in their apparent absence of suitable habitat areas.

Conservation actions and research in progress

CITES Appendix II.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Implement legislation to prevent illegal trade. Raise awareness of the species.

Mexican parrot in captivity:

Quite frequently seen in aviculture.

Capture for trade in wild birds represents a serious threat to a 8.000 individuals illegally caught per year.

In captivity is not a very long-lived bird; According to sources a specimen lived 10,5 years in captivity.

Each captive specimen of this species which is capable of reproducing, It must be placed in a program well managed captive breeding and not be sold as a pet, in order to ensure its long-term survival.

Alternative names:

Blue-rumped Parrotlet, Mexican Parrotlet (English).
Perruche-moineau à croupion bleu, Perruche-moineau turquoise, Toui du Mexique (French).
Blaubürzel-Sperlingspapagei (German).
Tuim-mexicano (Portuguese).
Catita Enana Mejicana, Cotorrita Mexicana, Perico Catarina, Periquito Mexicano (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Forpus
Scientific name: Forpus cyanopygius
Citation: (Souancé, 1856)
Protonimo: Psittacula cyanopygia

Imágenes Mexican Parrotlet:


Mexican Parrotlet (Forpus cyanopygius)

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet
Brotogeris chiriri

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet

Description:

20-25 cm.. length and 72 g. of weight.

The Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) has a plumage, in general, bright green; the underparts They are of a paler green and lower coverts are yellowish-green.

The wings They are of a slightly darker green, with the yellow border, visible when wings remain bent or when the bird is in flight. Their bill, hook-shaped, is orange-brown and legs and feet, pinkish gray. The eye rings They are creamy white and eyes Brown dark.

It is closely related to the Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus). In fact, it was considered conspécifica (owned or belonging to the same species) until 1997.

The females sexually dimorphic and are not to be sexed, either surgically or by DNA.

The immature are similar to adults but have the tail shorter and the bill It is a darker brown.

Taxonomic note:

      Until 1997, some taxonomists considered the Canary-winged Parakeet and Yellow-chevroned Parakeet belonging to the same species. Although the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It has the same secondary covert yellow feathers that can be seen in the Canary-winged Parakeet – no white in the primary wing feathers.
  • Sound of the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.ma Vasco care of s.o rg/wp-co Interahamwe nt/the the s/i the ge le ss_gra y_be you ty/so low due s/Catita chirirí.mp3]

Description 2 subspecies:

  • Brotogeris chiriri behni

    (Neumann, 1931) – Similar to the nominal species, except that they are slightly larger; the body green lacks the yellow dye.

  • Brotogeris chiriri chiriri

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Nominal.

Habitat:

They are mainly below 1000 m, locally up 2500 meters in a variety of habitats including rainforests, seasonal and coastal, Pantanal, savannah and city parks. reported to 2500 meters in arid areas.

Usually, traveling in flocks; in such small groups as 2 to 4 birds, but they have been observed to 20. They are described as small parrots assets, entertaining to watch.

Reproduction:

Nest usually in the cavities of trees or in tree termite nests. Tunnels are also nesting in dead palm fronds.

Once a nest It has been located and correctly “prepared” the couple, It is performed the laying, between 4 and 5 eggs. After breeding, the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet They form large communal huts until the next breeding season.

Food:

In their natural habitat, feed of seeds (including outbreaks), fruit as berries and figs and flowers. Also consume nectar, insects and their larvae. Often they are seen visiting barreiros (areas where there is soil rich in minerals) and riverbanks to feed soil.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 5,670,000 km2

Distributed inside East Brazil to the East of Bolivia, Paraguay and North of Argentina, in Formosa, Chaco, Missions and North of Currents. Introduced populations in Miami, Florida and California.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

  • Brotogeris chiriri behni

    (Neumann, 1931) – Center of Bolivia to the Northwest of Argentina, in Salta.

  • Brotogeris chiriri chiriri

    (Vieillot, 1818) – Nominal.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a extremely large range and, therefore, it does not approach the thresholds of vulnerability under the criteria of size range (Extension <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). La demographic trend appears to be stable and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as the least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “quite common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Catita chiriri in captivity:

Today is rare.

Since the late sixties to mid-seventies, more than 260.000 these were parakeets imported from South America for the pet trade. At that time, the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It was the most imported parrot. They settled in California (Los Angeles, San Francisco) self-sustaining populations Yellow-chevroned Parakeet released or escapes; populations also in Florida (Miami), as well as Connecticut and New York City.

The Catita chiriri seems better adapted to their habitat adopted her cousin closely related, the the Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus).

The Canary-winged Parakeet It has declined considerably since the early 80, while the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet It has established itself in different habitats.

In 2002, the population of Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in the area of Los Angeles, California It was estimated at 400 individuals. In the Florida, They have prospered more than any other place in the United States – there have been huge flocks, several hundred of them. The species is also quite established in the city center Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which he was also introduced.

Alternative names:

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, Chiriri Parakeet, Yellow chevroned Parakeet (English).
Toui à ailes jaunes, Conure à ailes jaunes, Perruche ou, Toui à miroir jaune, Toui chiriri (French).
Gelbflügelsittich, Kanarienflügelsittich (German).
periquito-de-encontro-amarelo, periquio-de-encontro-amarelo, periquito-de-asa-amarela, tuí-chiriri (Portuguese).
Catita chiriri, Catita Chirirí, Catita chíriri (Spanish).
Catita chirirí (Argentina).
Catita chiriri, Catita chíriri (Paraguay).
Tu’î Chyryry (guaraní).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Brotogeris
Scientific name: Brotogeris chiriri
Citation: (Vieillot, 1818)
Protonimo: Psittacus chiriri

Images Yellow-chevroned Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Sarutaiá, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A pet Yellow-chevroned Parakeet By Wagner Machado Carlos Lemes from Goiânia, Brazil [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet perching in a tree By Paulo Barradas (Brotogeris chiririUploaded by Sno whom You nradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil By Gonçalves Delcio from Goiânia, Brazil (A corn diferenteUploaded by Snowmanradio) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Parakeet yellow meeting. Photo taken in the backwoods of Rio Sucuriú By Deusdedith de Souza Alves Filho DehAlves (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)(Left) and Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea)(Right) on Combretum flowers By Bernard DUPONT from FRANCE [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Brazil By Alastair Rae (Flickr: Yellow-chevroned Parakeet) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet in Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. It is perching on the stem of a mango, which it has been eating By Alexandre Pereira [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – A Yellow-chevroned Parakeet on Erythrina velutina By Derek Keats from Johannesburg, South Africa (… on Erythrina velutina) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Fernando Igor de Godoy (Xeno-canto)

Plain Parakeet
Brotogeris tirica

Plain Parakeet

Description:

23 cm.. long and about 63 g. of weight.

Plain Parakeet

The Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) has the forecrown, lores, crown and cheeks, pale green with yellowish tint. Sides of the neck and nape, green, duller than in the head.

The upperparts green, slightly darker than the rest of the plumage. Most of the under wing-coverts, green, some feathers dyed olive brown, especially in lesser and median coverts. Primary coverts, primaries and outer secondaries, violet blue with green margins close to outerweb. Underwing-coverts greenish yellow, flight feather, bluish green. Underparts, pale yellowish green, tinged with bluish color on the sides of chest, the the thighs and undertail-coverts; flanks yellowish. Upper, the tail green with bluish tint to the central feathers; undertail, the tail is grayish blue-green. Bill color pale horn: irises brown: legs Rosaceae.

Both sexes are similar. Immature with little or no blue in primary coverts.

  • Sound of the Plain Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Catita tirica.mp3]

Habitat:

The Plain Parakeet They are experts in the art of adaptation; They can be found in a wider range of habitats than any other endemic parrot Brazilian Atlantic forest: in the lowlands and highlands, in the forest canopy and forest edges, parks and gardens (for example, of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo), farmland with trees, scattered patches of forest and secondary growth. Apparently more numerous in the forest edge habitats. Generally observed in the lowlands, but reported to 1.200 metres in the Itatiaia National Park on the border between the state of River and São Paulo. Gregarious. Generally seen in pairs or small groups, although sometimes you can see several hundred birds together.

It is the most common parrot São Paulo, where you can find even in the slums of the city.

Reproduction:

Observed in arboreal termite nests, in the crowns of Palmas or natural openings of trees; in the city of São Paulo nest in crevices of buildings and roofs, regularly using the balconies to feed.

The breeding season It has been recorded in September; observed immature in January. The clutch common in captivity is four eggs. They stay together for life.

Food:

Its diet it is very varied, It includes pulp of Posoqueria latifolia; seeds of Ficus, Trema micrantha, Xylopia brasiliensis, Vriesea, rhipsalis, Cecropia glazioui, Hyeronima alchorneoides and Merostachis; seeds and flowers of Tibouchina mutabilis and Psitticanthus; flowers of Norantea brasilensis and Eucatyptus and nectar of Pseudobombax. Sometimes they feed of insects and their larvae.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.010.000 km2

The Plain Parakeet They found in southeast Brazil, from Alagoas south through the eastern and southern Bay, Espirito Santo, in the South of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, East of São Paulo and Paraná until Santa Catarina.

The only records Rio Grande do Sul and Goiás They are considered doubtful.

Some seasonal movements. Uncommon to fairly common depending on the location, but apparently only reported very common in the city of Sao Paulo. Its population has declined in the Eastern European settlement Brazil, although less than other endemic parrots in the region. Live in several areas protected (for example, Itatiaia National Park).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Stable.

Justification of the red list category

This species has a very large range and therefore it is not close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of size range (Extension Occurrence <20,000 km2 combinada con un tamaño de rango decreciente o fluctuante, extensión / calidad de hábitat o tamaño de población y un pequeño número De lugares o fragmentación severa). La demographic trend appears to be stable and, therefore, the species does not approach the thresholds Vulnerable under the criteria of population trend (> 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to be close to the thresholds for Vulnerable under the criterion of population size (<10.000 individuos maduros con un descenso continuo estimado> 10% in ten years or three generations or a population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as the least concern.

Justification of the population

The size of the world's population has not been quantified, but this species is described as “common” (Stotz et to the., 1996).

Justification of trend

They suspected that the population is stable in absence of evidence of any decline or threatens substantial.

Catita tirica in captivity:

They are not very common in aviculture.

Alternative names:

Plain Parakeet, All-green Parakeet, Tirica Parakeet (English).
Toui tirica, Perruche tirica (French).
Tirikasittich, Tiricasittich (German).
periquito-rico, periquito, periquito-verdadeiro, periquito-verde, tuim (Portuguese).
Catita Tirica, Periquito Amarillento (Spanish).

Gmelin Johann Friedrich
Gmelin Johann Friedrich

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Brotogeris
Scientific name: Brotogeris tirica
Citation: (Gmelin, JF, 1788)
Protonimo: Psittacus Tirica

Images Plain Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Plain Parakeet in Morretes, Paraná, Brazil By Ben Tavener from Curitiba, Brazil [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – Plain Parakeet in Brazil By Jonathan Cunha [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – Plain Parakeet in captivity By Lucas de Melo [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(4) – Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(5) – Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) in São Paulo By Dario Sanches [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(6) – Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(7) – Indepedencia Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo Species in phase moulting By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(8) – Brotogeris tirica, Independence Park, Ipiranga museum, São Paulo By Dario Sanches from SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL (PERIQUITO-RICO ( Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(9) – The Plain Parakeet in the Serra da Cantareira State Park, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches (Flickr: PERIQUITO-RICO (Brotogeris tirica)) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(10) – Illustration Ricardo Sanches, parakeets rich(Brotogeris tirica) in ABES-SP

Sounds: Jerome Fischer (Xeno-canto)

Cliff Parakeet
Myiopsitta luchsi

Cliff Parakeet

Description:

26-28 cm.. length and a weight between 120 and 140 g..

Cliff Parakeet

The Cliff Parakeet (Myiopsitta luchsi) It has a medium size and is mainly green; the front of the crown, lower face and the chest, They are whitish, becoming bright yellow on the lower chest and the belly; the primaries and tail (medium-sized long), They are bright metallic blue.

Similar Monk Parakeet has less extensive white color crown, pale yellow instead of bright yellow in the belly and the pale gray chest It has a scaling effect that give centers feathers dark.

Bill color horn.

The immature They are similar to adults but with forecrown gray tinged with green.

  • Sound of the Cliff Parakeet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorra Boliviana.mp3]

Taxonomic note:

      This species was described in 1868 by Finsch as Bolborhynchus luchsi, with specimens from Bolivia. Later, the species was transferred to the genus Myiopsitta and the name Myiopsitta luchsi It was used apparently to 1918 by Cory. From 1943, Bond & de Schauensee and they treat it as a subspecies of monachus (Myiopsitta monachus luchsi), approach that has been followed by all modern authors, but Necklace (1997) finally he considers that the morphological characters and their way of nesting are sufficient to raise again species level.

Habitat:

It shares the same habitat with another endemic parrot, the Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys), although both species do not compete because they feed on different plants.

They found in dry woodland or open fields including fields with trees Gallery forests, isolated groups of trees, Palm trees, forests, savannah and scrubland thorny cactus. It is also found in cultivated areas. Visitors from some urban areas. Until 3000 m.

Reproduction:

The breeding season It is between December and March in crevices in cliffs, constructing a bulky nest branches. Unlike Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), the Cliff Parakeet not commonly nests, but often nests are placed immediately adjacent to each other. The female is in charge of making this nest, and their maintenance.
Couples are for life. The laying is of 5 to 8 eggs per clutch, and incubation lasts a few 26 days. At six weeks old chicks can now leave their nest.

Food:

It feeds on seeds of various fruits, including those of fruits cactus Neocardenasia herzogiana and seeds of the Acacia furcatispina; It is also known to feed on corn grown.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 148.000 km2

Restricted to xerophytic vegetation, near cliffs in intermountain valleys of eastern Andes of Bolivia, from the southeast of Peace, South of Cochabamba and West Santa Cruz, to the North of Chuquisaca and possibly other areas.

Its range is very similar to the Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys).

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Least concern.

• Population trend: Unknown.

Justification of the population

The size of the population has not been estimated, but the species has been described as “quite common” (pit et to the., 1997) and “possibly quite rare” (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Justification of trend

The population trend is difficult to determine due to uncertainty about the extent and severity of threats to the species.
However, like many parrots, They face the traffic of wildlife and wild captivity. Also they suffer direct and immediate consequences of the destruction of their habitat by deforestation and the advance of the agricultural frontier.

Conservation Actions Underway

The species is listed in Appendix II of the CITES.

Cotorra Boliviana in captivity:

Fairly common. Very sociable, but shy with humans.
It is able to vocalize or imitate words, although this quality is far from possessing the capabilities of some genera of the same family.

Alternative names:

Cliff Parakeet, Bolivean monk parakeet, monk parakeet, Monk Parakeet (Cliff) (English).
Perriche des falaises, Conure de Luchs, Conure des falaises, Conure des rochers (French).
Luchssittich, Bolivien Mönchsittich, Bolivien-Mönchsittich (German).
Cliff Parakeet (Portuguese).
Cotorra Boliviana (Spanish).

Friedrich Hermann Otto Finsch
Friedrich Hermann Otto Finsch

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Myiopsitta
Scientific name: Myiopsitta luchsi
Citation: (Finsch, 1868)
Protonimo: Luchs Bolborrhynchus

Images Cliff Parakeet:

————————————————————————————————

Cliff Parakeet (Myiopsitta luchsi)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife
FAUNA – Psittacidae

Photos:

(1) – Bolivian Parrot, Bolivia, Sud Chichas, Churquipampa by giorgetta.ch
(2) – Bolivian Parrot, Bolivia, Sud Chichas, Cerro Elefante by giorgetta.ch
(3) – Bolivian Parrot, Bolivia, Sud Chichas, Churquipampa by giorgetta.ch
(4) – A couple of Bolivian parrots in their nest located in the chalky wall of Churquipampa where its waters fall almost freely 330 meters to the creek. The female is arranging the main entrance of the nest while the male takes delight in watching her work by giorgetta.ch
(5) – Bolivian Parrot, Bolivia, Sud Chichas, Churquipampa by giorgetta.ch
(6) – Myopsittacus luchsi = Myiopsitta (monachus) luchsi, Cliff Parakeet, sometimes treated as a subspecies of the Monk Parakeet by John Gerrard Keulemans [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Andrew Spencer (Xeno-canto)

Golden-tailed Parrotlet
Touit surdus

Golden-tailed Parrotlet

Description:

16 cm.. length.

Golden-tailed Parrotlet

The Golden-tailed Parrotlet (Touit surdus) has a plumage mostly green; the forecrown, lores, supercilii area and cheeks, They are yellowed; crown, rear area of the neck, ear-coverts and sides neck, green with dark narrow margins, giving a scaly appearance.

Mantle and back, green with rump and uppertail-coverts slightly brighter, more emerald. Scapulars and inner tertials, warm brown: primary coverts, dark brown, rest of the coverts green. The the flight feathers They are brown above with narrow green margins to outerweb; brown opaque below. Blue feathers Carpal edge of the wing. Underwing-coverts green. Chin yellowish; chest brighter yellowish green, brighter in the belly and in the undertail-coverts. Tail, centrally green with faint black markings at tips, laterally golden-yellow with narrow black tips on upper surface.. The bill yellow horn; gray irises, legs grey.

The female perhaps duller below, with lateral feathers tail greener and green tips and margins. Immature not described.

  • Sound of the Golden-tailed Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita sorda.mp3]

Description 2 subspecies:

The subspecies Touit surdus chryseurus it has been proposed to birds of northeastern range on the basis of dubious lateral tail feathers more brownish and smaller.

  • Touit surdus chryseurus

    (Swainson, 1823) – Side tail feathers, brown / yellow; smaller.

  • Touit surdus surdus

    (Kuhl, 1820) – Nominal.

Habitat:

They live mainly in evergreen forests lowland, although occasionally they extend to the adjacent lower mountain slopes. Birds have been observed in the canopy of a secondary forest fragment surrounded by open fields; Other reports suggest that birds visit fruiting trees in deforested areas to feed.

You can visit, occasionally, cocoa plantations where trees shade the crop plants, but this has not been tested. They are to 700 m in Alagoas and to 800 m in Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The Brown-backed Parrotlet They seem to live in flocks (mainly 6-12), perhaps you composed of family groups.

Recent observations suggest that this species is resistant habitat alteration.

Reproduction:

The reproduction of this species practically is not registered. A female observed in September Alagoas, He was not in breeding condition.

Food:

Foods reported in feed Brown-backed Parrotlet are fruits Spondias lutea and Rapanea schwackeana

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident ): 1.680.000 km2

The distribution of the Brown-backed Parrotlet It extends through Atlantic forests of eastern Brazil, including coastal areas of the northeastern states of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas with a record Camocim in the North of Ceará, where there are fragments of rainforest in coastal areas.

Exist sporadic records but widespread (mainly) on the shores of Bay and Espirito Santo, and in Rio de Janeiro, for example in Teresopolis, around the Itatiaia National Park, new Freiburg and Cabo Frio, with some reports São Paulo southwest to Cardoso Island, near the border with Paraná. The reports of For and Goiás They are not substantiated and they are probably wrong. The apparent seasonal distribution of the species in some areas suggests migration trends.

They seem to be distributed at low densities and (except a report in the lower basin Tiete river in Sao Paulo) It was considered a rare species in the nineteenth century. Like other members of the genus is, without a doubt, ave a difficult to observe, and often overlooked. However, many ancient villages are no longer inhabited, with forests completely eliminated or severely degraded lowland, especially in the north of the mountain range, where you can be almost extinct. In the news They are distributed in several protected areas.

Distribution 2 subspecies:

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size: 2500-9999 specimens.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because its population is small and declining rapidly due to continuous deforestation. It has been found that it is more resistant to forest fragmentation of what was thought first, and may be sub-registered instead of actually little, especially in the southern part of its range.

Justification of the population

The species is generally rare; Its population is in the band 2.500-9.999 mature individuals, equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

rapid and continuous population decline is suspected on the basis of continuous destruction and fragmentation of habitat.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. It is considered Vulnerable nationally in Brazil (MMA 2014). And protected by Brazilian law. There have been numerous protected areas: Hewn Stone Biological Reserve (Alagoas), Monte Pascoal National Park and Serra das Lontras, Biological Reserve and Private Reserve Serra Nice (Bahia), Great stream, Sooretama and Augusto Ruschi), Desengano State Park and Itatiaia National Park (Rio de Janeiro)

Conservation Actions Proposed

Examine the historical towns and proper habitat to clarify the distribution. Ecology Research and seasonal movements. designate murici in Alagoas biological reserve and ensure their protection de facto. Consolidate protected areas distributed.

Deaf lovebird in captivity:

Rare and unknown in captivity. Any captive individual (it can not be released) It should be part of a conservation program well managed to ensure continuity of this species.

Alternative names:

Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Golden tailed Parrotlet (English).
Toui à queue d’or (French).
Gelbschwanzpapagei, Gelbschwanz-Papagei (German).
Apuim-de-cauda-amarela, papagainho, periquitinho, periquitinho-surdo (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Sorda, Lorito de Cola Dorada (Spanish).

Kuhl, Heinrich
Heinrich Kuhl

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit surdus
Citation: (Kuhl, 1820)
Protonimo: parrot deaf

Images Golden-tailed Parrotlet:


Golden-tailed Parrotlet (Touit surdus)

Sources:

  • Avibase
  • Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
  • Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
  • Birdlife
  • parrots.org

  • Photos:

(1) – Golden-tailed Parrotlet – Touit surdus – Golden-tailed parrotlet by Ciro Albano

httpv://www.YouTube.com/watch?v = ZaWxtXYx6U

(2) – Urochroma deaf By Blanchard, Emile; Bonaparte, Charles Lucian; Bourjot Saint-Hilaire, Alexandre; Le Vaillant, François; Souancé, Charles de. [CC BY 2.0 or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Brown-backed Parrotlet
Touit melanonotus

Brown-backed Parrotlet

Description:

15 cm.. length.

The Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus) has the forecrown, the lower cheeks, the sides of neck, the crown and the rear of the neck, grass-green; lores and upper cheeks paler and more yellowish green; ear-coverts brown. Mantle, back and center rump dull blackish-brown color; scapulars, sides rump and uppertail-coverts green.

Inner coverts and median, alula and primary coverts, blackish brown (latter with narrow green margins to outerweb); other coverts greenish brown grass. Tertiary brown. Flight feather green on the outerweb with black opaque brown at the tips and innerwebs. Underwing, with coverts dull green, flight feather, pale grayish green. Chin yellowish; underparts pale grayish green, blur on the sides of chest. Upper, the tail centrally green with black spot on the tips of the outerweb. Outer feathers bright red at the base with broad black subterminal bands and a small green patch tips; undertail, the tail pale green tones and duller with greyish stain on the tip, pale red in outer featherss. Bill yellow distally, greyer towards base; irises grey; legs grey.

The females may show duller bluish-grey on underparts. Immature not described.

  • Sound of the Brown-backed Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita dorsinegra.mp3]

Habitat:

Mainly reported in moist forests on the lower mountain slopes. Most records are in altitudes between 500-1.000 m (1.400 metres in the Itatiaia National Park), but some are lowlands to near sea level (for example, Cardoso Island). Gregarious and generally in small groups 5-20 birds.

Reproduction:

Virtually no information on the breeding. Presumably it occurs in September-October, but this is unconfirmed (Collar 1997a, Necklace et to the ., 2013). A juvenile was photographed in the National Park Organ Mountains in December of 2008 (Young y Pimentel 2009).

Food:

Known foods include seeds large tree legumes and fruits Rapanea acuminata, Clusia sp. and mistletoe.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding / resident): 400.000 km2

The Cotorrita Dorsinegra has a limited distribution in southeast Brazil, from Bay (three records in the nineteenth century) to the South of São Paulo, leaping Espirito Santo (though presumably be extinct there).

sporadically, albeit broad, reported in State of Rio de Janeiro, including Sierra Cantagalo, National Park Organ Mountains and the surrounding areas of Teresopolis, including near the The Desengano State Park. They were also observed in the Itatiaia massif (including the Itatiaia National Park) where distribution may include adjacent parts of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Also observed in other locations of unspecified Serra do Mar in the State of Rio de Janeiro and in the city of Rio de Janeiro (for example, in the National Park of Tijuca and forest Corvocado).

Reported in several locations in the Sao Paulo State, to the South of the Cardoso Island, near the border with Paraná. There may be seasonal movements or dispersions (perhaps mainly altitudinal and relatively short distances). Registered in several protected areas such as State Park Serra do Mar and the Itatiaia National Park.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size : 2500-9999 specimens.

JUSTIFICATION category Red List

It is likely that the population of this species is small and decreases, with small subpopulations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Vulnerable.

Justification of the population

The evaluation of the Brazilian Red List poultry (MMA 2014) It is estimated that there <10.000 individuos maduros con <1,000 individuos maduros en cada subpoblación. Justification of trend

Se sospecha una decrease moderate and continuous of the population because rates of habitat destruction and degradation.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. In Brazil, this species is considered Vulnerable nationally (Silveira & Straube 2008, MMA 2014), and it is protected by Brazilian law. It is distributed in many protected areas, with recent records: Desengano State Parks and Pedra Branca, Itatiaia, Organ Mountains y Tijuca Parques Nacionales (Rio de Janeiro); Experimental Station Ubatuba, Area Environmental Protection Iguape, Serra do Mar, Ilha do Cardoso and State Parks Intervales (São Paulo); Salto Morato Natural Reserve y Marsh Antwren (Paraná) (Wege and Long 1995, Aleixo y Galetti 1997, Necklace et to the ., 2013)

Conservation Actions Proposed

Examine the suitable habitat in Bahia and Espirito Santo to clarify their distribution and status. To determine the seasonal abundance at different elevations. You consolidate the protected areas where distributed.

Cotorrita Dorsinegra in captivity:

It is not known in captivity.

Alternative names:

Brown-backed Parrotlet, Black-backed Parrotlet, Black-eared Parrotlet, Brown backed Parrotlet, Wied’s Parrotlet (English).
Toui à dos noir (French).
Braunrückenpapagei, Braunrücken-Papagei (German).
Apuim-de-costas-pretas, apuim-de-cauda-vermelha, apuim-de-costa-preta, apuim-de-costas-escuras, papagainho, periquitinho (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Dorsinegra, Lorito de Lomo Negro (Spanish).

Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit melanonotus
Citation: (Wied-Neuwied, 1820)
Protonimo: Psittacus melanonotus

Images Brown-backed Parrotlet:

————————————————————————————————

Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(2) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons
(3) – A Brown-backed Parrotlet in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil By Dario Sanches from São Paulo, Brazil [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Sounds: Guilherme de Melo Becher (Xeno-canto)

Red-fronted Parrotlet
Touit costaricensis

Red-fronted Parrotlet

Description:

17,5 cm.. length.

The Red-fronted Parrotlet (Touit costaricensis) has the forecrown, anteriorly of crown, lores and stripe under the eyes, red; sides neck, cheeks and upperparts, green with the back of the crown and nape slightly paler and yellower. Inner wing-coverts green; exterior and median coverts and wing leading edge, red; primary coverts black.

Primaries and outer secondaries, black with green margin to outerweb of the primaries. Inner underwing-coverts, yellow, the outer, red. Feathers on base of the beak, on chin and throat, brighter yellowish green; the chest, the belly and undertail-coverts, green tinted yellowish. The tail greenish yellow with a black tip (except the outermost feathers) and dark green subterminally. Bill pale yellow; cere and bare periophthalmic, grey; irises grey; legs slaty.

The female It has less red on the upperwing-coverts, and perhaps more yellow in the underwing-coverts; probably, on average, are smaller than males. The immature It has little or no red on the head.

  • Sound of the Red-fronted Parrotlet.
[audio:HTTPS://www.mascotarios.org/wp-content/themes/imageless_gray_beauty/sonidos/Cotorrita costarricense.mp3]

Note:

The Red-fronted Parrotlet It has sometimes been treated as conspecific with the Blue-fronted Parrotlet (Touit dilectissimus) North of South America and Panama. While these taxa are clearly allies and share a recent common ancestor, most authors now treat them as separate based on their clear and consistent differences in plumage. The structural divergence can also exist in the Red-fronted Parrotlet longer seems to show the uppertail-coverts (extending almost to the end of the tail) its counterpart Southern, While (although the sample is small) it suggests a sexual dimorphism by the length of the wings and tail on Red-fronted Parrotlet but not in Blue-fronted Parrotlet.

Habitat:

Generally observed in the canopy humid forests at middle altitudes. It moves towards the thicket, on forest edges, flying over the clear, sometimes in the lowlands (sometimes at sea level, especially in southeast Costa Rica), where perhaps it is a seasonal visitor. Tolerates some habitat alterations.

Observed in association with Red-headed Barbet (Eubucco bourcierii) and Blue-and-gold Tanager (Bangsia arcaei), both species associated in very humid cold forests in the upper tropical and subtropical areas.

Observed to 3.000 meters in Costa Rica in the early dry season and reported regularly at altitudes 500-1.000 m during the wet season. Generally in pairs or small flocks family.

Reproduction:

The family size usually between 4-5 birds, suggests the clutch usual 2-3 eggs. probably plays during the season, dry.

Food:

Feed of fruits trees and epiphytes, such as Cavendishia and Clusia, but probably also include flowers and seeds.

Distribution:

Size of its range (breeding/resident): 10.000 km2

The few records Red-fronted Parrotlet existing in Costa Rica come, mainly, the highlands of central-south Caribbean slope, where its range seems to extend to the south, from Monteverde, Turrialba volcano and Lemon.

Although there are no records in much of the east of Costa Rica, its existence can be continuous along the Cordillera de Talamanca (perhaps only in the Caribbean slope) to western Panama. The handful of Panamanian specimens and records from observations, They are mainly from the western highlands to a report from the east, about the Cocle Province.

It is obviously a kind rare and presumably declining due to continued deforestation (at least in the lowlands) in a limited range.

Conservation:

• Current red list category of the UICN: Vulnerable.

• Population trend: Decreasing.

Population size : 2500-9999 specimens.

Justification of the red list category

This species is classified as Vulnerable because the clearing and forest fragmentation at middle elevations, mainly in the Cordillera Volcánica Central and in the Sierra de Tilarán of Costa Rica, It is likely to be causing significant slopes in its small range and (presumably) in population.

Justification of the population

It is estimated that the breeding population of Important Bird Areas of Costa Rica is 1.000 to 4.000 mature individuals (J. And others Craido 2007, J. Sánchez et al., In 2007), so it is believed that the total population may be within the range of 2.500-9.999 mature individuals. This is equivalent to 3.750-14.999 individuals in total, round here 3.500-15.000 individuals.

Justification of trend

It is suspected that the population species is decreasing at a moderate rate, in line with the continuous clearance of their forest habitat in the northern part of its range.

Conservation Actions Underway

CITES Appendix II. Live in several areas protected, including national parks Braulio Carrillo, Tapantí-Cerro de la Muerte and Monteverde, Costa Rica, and La Amistad International Park and adjacent reserves in both countries. However, The legal protection of Palo Seco Protected Forest (BPPS) (a booking Panama adjacent to La Amistad) has not prevented clearance for agriculture (Angehr and Jordan, 1998).

Conservation Actions Proposed

Evaluate the importance of habitat outside the breeding season (J. Created en lit. 2007, J. Sanchez et al., In 2007). Conduct surveys to determine the total size of the population. Study of the ecology of the species (J. Sanchez et al., in bed. , 2007). Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of loss and recovery of forests (J. Sanchez et al., In 2007). Effectively protect the Bosque Protector Palo Seco (BPPS).

Costa Rican parrot in captivity:

No reports are known captive birds.

Alternative names:

Red-fronted Parrotlet, Red fronted Parrotlet (English).
Toui du Costa Rica (French).
Costa-Rica-Papagei (German).
Red-fronted Parrotlet (Portuguese).
Cotorrita Costarricense, Lorito de Pecho Rojo, Periquito alirrojo (Spanish).

Scientific classification:

Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Genus: Touit
Scientific name: Touit costaricensis
Citation: (Cory, 1913)
Protonimo: Urochroma costaricensis

————————————————————————————————

Red-fronted Parrotlet (Touit costaricensis)

Sources:

Avibase
– Parrots of the World – Forshaw Joseph M
– Parrots A Guide to the Parrots of the World – Tony Juniper & Mike Parr
Birdlife

Photos:

(1) – Papagei am Rincon de la Vieja by KovacGEO Reisencommunity

Sounds:

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