The San Bernardo It is a breed of dog whose name in other languages: St. Very, Bernhardiner, Chien du Saint-Bernard, Saint Bernard Dog.
According to historians of the race, San Bernardo, descended from the ancient molossians Asian, whose ancestral form was and is represented by the Tibetan Mastiff.
A team of researchers from the University of Manchester, directed by Chris Klingenberg of the Faculty of biological sciences, reviewed 47 San Bernardos skulls donated by Swiss farmers to the Bern Natural History Museum covering a period of 120 years, from modern copies until those old dogs of the time that was initially defined the standard of the breed. It was found that the features stipulated in the standard of the San Bernardo race have become more exaggerated with the passage of time, as breeders chose dogs who had desired physical attributes.
Compared to their ancestors, the modern St. Bernard has a wider skull, the angle between the nose and the forehead more pronounced, and also a more significant bump over the eyes. These changes are described exactly as desired in the breed standards. Clearly, not due to other factors such as overall growth, that they do not provide any physical advantage to the animal, so we can be sure of have evolved only by selective breeders considerations.
This research shows how the selection, either natural or in this case artificially influenced by the man, It is the fundamental driving force behind the evolution of life on the planet.
In the year 923 was born Bernard of Menthon in Menton, region of Savoy (France), which he became Archdeacon of Aosta, in the Italian Alps, dedicated to spreading the Christian faith among the inhabitants of the Alps. In one of these Alpine passes was founded in the year 1049 the Hospice of the Gran San Bernardo, to help, help and shelter to hikers who were the step. The Holy, Catholic scholar and theologian, He was part of the Cistercian order or better known as Trappist, as fellow (the Trappist monks) in Switzerland they had as a companion a dog of this breed around the 16th century.
In the great Mount St mountain pass. Bernhard, to 2.469 meters above the sea level, monks founded in the 11th century, a hospice for travellers and pilgrims. There they raised, Since the mid-17TH century, big mountain dogs for guard and surveillance. The existence of those dogs is documented graphically from 1695 written in a chronicle of the Hospice from the year 1707.
These dogs were soon used as guard dogs and, especially, as rescue dogs for travellers lost in the fog and snow.
There are Chronicles published in many languages over the many lives were saved by these dogs in the “White death” and stories of soldiers who crossed the mountain pass with Napoleon Bonaparte to 1800, in the 19th century, He spread the fame of the Saint Bernard dog throughout Europe.
Already known at the time “Barry Hund“, and the legendary “Barry” He became the symbol of the dog rescue. The direct ancestors of the St. Bernard dog were widespread large size dogs, peasants of the region. These large dogs became only a few generations, an ideal pattern, in the current race.
Following a Congress held international cinológico the 2 in June of 1887, St. Bernard dog was officially recognised as Swiss breed and the breed standard became mandatory. Since then St. Bernard dog was converted in the “Swiss national dog”.
Heinrich Schumacher Holligen, was the first, in 1867 creating genealogical documents for their dogs. In February of 1884 opened the “Schweizerische Hundestammbuch” (Swiss races book, SHSB). The first entry was the dog of St. Bernard's “Leon”, followed by other 28 annotations of St. Bernard dogs. The 15 in March of 1884 was founded the “Schweizerische St. Bernhardsclub” (Swiss Club of the St. Bernard dog) in Basel.
San bernardo, is classified in the Group 2: Dog type Pinscher and Schnauzer, Molosoides and mountain dogs and Swiss Boyeros, and other races; section 2; Molosoides, 2.2 Type mountain (without working trial). Of the FCI (Federation Cynologique Internationale).
There are two varieties of the dog of St. Bernard:
- The variety of short hair (Double hair, Stockhaar).
- The long-haired variety.
Two varieties are of great stature and of a noble general appearance; they have a vigorous body, robust, harmonic and muscular, as well as an imposing head with expression of the face care.
The cross appeal is, minimum of 70 cm for males and 65 cm for females. The FCI standard sets a maximum of 90 cm for males and 80 cm for females (dogs exceeding the maximum height is not devaluarán if its general aspect is harmonic and its proper motion).
In general the size is defined as:
- “Very large“, to be optimal in San Bernardo, When exceeds the 86 cm in males and the 80 cm in females.
- “Large” When going from 82 to 86 cm in males and 75 to 80 cm in females.
- “Media” When going from 78 to 82 cm in males and 70 to 75 cm in females.
- “Small” When going from 70 to 78 cm in males and 65 to 70 cm in females.
"In the"period of gold of the San Bernardo” (1920-1940) were very rarely seen in exposures lower males to 80 Switzerland cm, of Germany, in the Netherlands and the subjects were not so rare above the 90 cm..
Also currently a good San Bernardo for access to the Championship should never be - with some exceptions- below the 80-82 cm and abundant exceed such limit to reach above if the maximum Doge German and Irish Wolfhound is possible but with greater volume, greater length of the trunk and heavier, course.
Character and skills
San Bernardo is a large dog, elegant and strong, Extrovert, his appearance is friendly, peaceful, is a dog “debonair“. Generally gentle and affectionate, He is very loyal and devoted to their masters.
It is especially suitable for children by those who feel special attraction, so it received the nickname of “MINDER dog”. It is large enough to protect measured aggression.
It is a dog of a quiet nature, quiet but cheerful, the relationship with the children is excellent.
His company and joy are favorable for health. You need two fundamental things in care: Clean them ears and remove them the laganas.
They bring much love in the family. It is a very jealous breed with their owners, they might attack if they were seen at risk, and love the children.
It is a dog needing care in its fur, especially in the face, eyes and eyelids, you need to do exercise (without exceeding) and space. It needs to receive love, like all animal.
- Otros nombres: St. Bernhardshund / Bernhardiner / Chien du Saint-Bernard / Saint Bernard Dog.
- Group 2 / Section 2 – Molosoides and mountain dogs.
Dogs breeds: San Bernardo